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Animal Classification. Unit Two – God’s Living Creation Chapter Five – Animal Classification. Animal Classification Introduction. One of the most distinguishing characteristics of animals is whether or not they have backbones. Invertebrates – animals without backbones

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animal classification

Animal Classification

Unit Two – God’s Living Creation

Chapter Five – Animal Classification

animal classification introduction
Animal ClassificationIntroduction
  • One of the most distinguishing characteristics of animals is whether or not they have backbones.
  • Invertebrates – animals without backbones
  • Vertebrates – animals with backbones
animal classification invertebrates
Animal ClassificationInvertebrates
  • There are more invertebrates than vertebrates.
  • 95% of animals are invertebrates.
  • Scientists split invertebrates into smaller groups based on their unique characteristics.
animal classification invertebrates sponges and stinging animals
Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Sponges and Stinging Animals
  • Sponges
    • The water goes through tiny pores (holes) in the outside of the sponge. When the water flows through the sponge, the sponge extracts nutrients and small organisms that it needs.
  • Jellyfish
    • Nematocysts – tiny stinging organelles used to capture food
  • Sea anemones
  • Corals
    • The Great Barrier Reef is the largest coral reef system in the world.
animal classification invertebrates mollusks
Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Mollusks
  • Mollusks – animals that have soft bodies and mantles (special parts that form a shell)
    • Snails, oysters, clams
  • Bivalve – animal with two shells
    • Clams, mussels, oysters
  • Gastropods – “stomach footed”
    • Univalve – animal with only one shell
      • Snail
animal classification invertebrates mollusks1
Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Mollusks
  • Slug – mollusk without a shell
    • Nudibranchs – a type of slug found in the ocean
  • Cephalopods – moves with a jetlike motion by forcing water through a tube in its body
    • Squids, octopuses, chambered nautilus
animal classification invertebrates echinoderms
Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Echinoderms
  • Radial symmetry – equal parts radiate from the center
  • The bodies of echinoderms are shaped like the spokes of a bicycle wheel. Each of the spokes is the same. All echinoderms live in water and move around by using thousands of little tube feet.
    • Sea stars (starfish), sea urchins, sand dollars
  • Filter feeders – eat whatever comes floating through the water
animal classification invertebrates echinoderms continued
Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Echinoderms (continued)
  • Characteristics of Echinoderms
    • Have hard skeletons
    • Protect themselves in different ways
      • Spines on their bodies
      • Hide in cracks
      • Use camouflage
      • Break off its own arm and grow another
animal classification invertebrates flatworms
Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Flatworms
  • Bilateral symmetry – can be divided down the middle and be the same on each side
  • Flatworms are either:
    • Parasitic – live on or in other living organisms (hosts); depend on their hosts for nourishment
    • Free-living – independent of other organisms
      • Planarians
animal classification invertebrates roundworms
Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Roundworms
  • Smooth and round
  • Can be parasites or free-living
  • Roundworms help decompose dead organisms, and therefore, help fertilize the soil.
animal classification invertebrates segmented worms
Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Segmented Worms
  • Annelid – segmented worm
  • Segments – similar pieces
  • Setae – hairlike structures that worms use to move
  • Leeches
    • Suck blood only from the outside
animal classification invertebrates segmented worms continued
Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Segmented Worms (continued)
  • Sea worms
  • Earthworms
    • Burrow around and make holes for air to get into the soil
    • The air helps plants in the soil to grow.
    • Break down complex plant matter into nutrients that the plants around it can use.
animal classification invertebrates arthropods
Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Arthropods
  • Arthropod – “jointed foot”
    • Jointed legs and segmented bodies
  • Exoskeleton – an outer hard covering that protects the animal
  • Molt – a process of shedding the exoskeleton in order to grow a new one and continue growing
animal classification invertebrates arthropods crustaceans
Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Arthropods – Crustaceans
  • Shrimp, lobsters, crabs
  • Characteristics of crustaceans
    • Have at least five pairs of jointed legs
    • Breathe through gills
    • Have some sort of claw
animal classification invertebrates arthropods arachnids
Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Arthropods – Arachnids
  • Arachnids – have eight legs and two body segments
  • Spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites
    • Ticks
      • Parasitic
      • Use animals and humans as hosts
      • Their bites can spread diseases such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Lyme disease
    • Spiders
      • Most familiar arachnids
      • Spinnerets – silk-spinning organs in the back of spiders
animal classification invertebrates arthropods centi millipedes
Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Arthropods – Centi & Millipedes
  • Have many body segments and many legs
animal classification invertebrates arthropods insects
Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Arthropods – Insects
  • Have three body segments
    • Head, thorax, abdomen
  • Have three pairs of legs
  • Have two pairs of wings
  • Mouthparts
    • Beetles – chewing mouthparts
    • Mosquitoes – piercing and sucking mouthparts
    • Butterflies & Moths – siphoning mouthparts
animal classification invertebrates arthropods insects continued
Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Arthropods – Insects (continued)
  • Metamorphosis – the process where an insect becomes an adult
  • Two types of metamorphosis
    • Incomplete metamorphosis – three stages
      • Eggs, nymph, adult
    • Complete metamorphosis – four stages
      • Egg, larva, pupa, adult
animal classification invertebrates arthropods insects continued1
Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Arthropods – Insects (continued)
  • Bible Integration
    • Proverbs 30:25-28
    • Even God’s animals behave in such a way that glorifies God. We choose our behavior. Shouldn’t it be one that honors God?!
animal classification v ertebrates
Animal ClassificationVertebrates
  • Invertebrates make up most of the species of the animal kingdom.
  • Vertebrates make up most of the size of the animal kingdom.
  • Vertebrates are able to grow larger than invertebrates because their backbone gives support for their greater weight.
  • Groups used to classify vertebrates
    • Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals
animal classification vertebrates fish
Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Fish
  • All breathe through gills
  • Cold-blooded – find warmth or coolness from their environments
  • Grouped based on their skeletons – cartilage or bone
animal classification vertebrates fish cartilage fish
Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Fish – Cartilage fish
  • Sharks, rays, and skates
  • Cartilage – bonelike substance, but softer and more bendable than bone

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Fish – Bony fish

  • Have skeletons that are stronger and harder than cartilage fish
  • Bluegill, bass, trout, seahorse, eel
animal classification vertebrates amphibians
Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Amphibians
  • Cold-blooded
  • “Double life” – part in the water and part on land
  • Stages of frog metamorphosis
    • Egg – lay eggs in water
    • Larva – some eggs hatch into tadpoles
      • At the end of the larval stage, they lose their gills, grow legs, and move onto land
    • Adult
animal classification vertebrates amphibians continued
Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Amphibians (continued)
  • Frogs
    • Smooth skin
    • Always live near water
    • Large, powerful hind legs for jumping
    • Lay their eggs in clusters
  • Toads
    • Short legs – hop short distances
    • Nubby skin that makes them look like they have warts
    • Lay their eggs in long chains
animal classification vertebrates reptiles
Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Reptiles
  • Cold-blooded
  • Have scaly skin that allows them to live in areas away from water
  • Three major groups
    • Turtles, lizards and snakes, and crocodilians
animal classification vertebrates reptiles turtles
Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Reptiles – Turtles
  • Clearly identified by its unique skeletal structure
  • Omnivores – eating both plants and animals
  • Herbivores – eating only plants
    • Tortoises – high, domed shells
animal classification vertebrates reptiles lizards and snakes
Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Reptiles – Lizards and Snakes
  • Lizards
    • Look like salamanders (amphibians), but belong to reptile group
  • Snakes
    • Carnivores – eat only animals
    • Swallow their meals whole
    • Upper and lower jaws that are not tightly attached
    • Can swallow prey that is larger than the diameter of their own bodies
animal classification vertebrates reptiles crocodilians
Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Reptiles – Crocodilians
  • Alligators, caimans, crocodiles
  • Scaly skin, large bodies, short legs
animal classification vertebrates birds
Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Birds
  • Birds are birds b/c they have feathers
  • Feathers assist in flight, protect them from the water they swim in and provide needed warmth
  • Birds that fly have very lightweight skeletons. Their bones are very hard, but they contain hollow, air-filled cavities
  • God has given each bird the perfect beak for the food it eats
  • Warm-blooded – having body temps that stay the same, regardless of their environment
animal classification vertebrates mammals
Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals
  • All have hair or fur
  • Warm-blooded
  • Most bear live young
  • All feed their young with milk from the mother’s body
  • All have a four-chambered heart
  • Have three ear bones
  • All breathe using lungs
animal classification vertebrates mammals monotremes
Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Monotremes
  • Monotremes – lay eggs

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Marsupials

  • Have pouches where their babies grow big enough to function
animal classification vertebrates mammals rodents rabbits moles
Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Rodents, Rabbits, Moles
  • Rodents
    • Mice, rats, squirrels, beavers, porcupines
    • Have large front teeth that never stop growing
  • Rabbits
    • Teeth form differently than the rodent
  • Moles
    • Insectivores – eat insects as their primary food
animal classification vertebrates mammals bats
Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Bats
  • Only mammals that can fly
  • Nocturnal – come out at night
  • Echolocation – a technique used by bats in order for them to know where they are
    • Bats make high frequency clicks that bounce off objects. The bats judge the distance to the object by the time it takes the sound to return.
animal classification vertebrates mammals hoofed mammals
Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Hoofed mammals
  • Two groups
    • Those with odd number of toes on each hoof
      • Horses, zebras, burros, mules
    • Those with even number of toes on each hoof
      • “Cloven hoof”
      • Deer, giraffes, camels, cattle, sheep, antelope, hippopotamus
animal classification vertebrates mammals carnivores
Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Carnivores
  • Meat-eaters
  • Cats
    • Have retractable claws – the claws disappear into its paw when it does not need them for hunting or climbing
    • Prides – group of lions
    • Lions, cougars, tigers, jaguars
  • Dogs
animal classification vertebrates mammals carnivores continued
Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Carnivores (continued)
  • Pinnipeds
    • Seals, walruses, sea lions
    • Primary food is fish, though they will eat mollusks, crustaceans, and even penguins
    • Can live in the ocean and on land
animal classification vertebrates mammals marine mammals
Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Marine mammals
  • Whales
    • Blubber – fatty substance, rich in oil, that insulates whales against the cold
    • Baleen whales
      • Instead of teeth, they have giant plates, called baleen plates, that help them gather plankton and tiny crustaceans (krill)
    • Pods – groups of whales
    • Toothed whales
      • Dolphins, porpoises, orcas, sperm whales
      • Use echolocation (like bats)
animal classification vertebrates mammals primates
Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Primates
  • Have good eyesight
  • Have “hands” that can grasp
  • Two groups
    • Lemurs
    • Monkeys
      • New World Monkeys – spend much of their time in trees
      • Old World Monkeys – spend much of their time on the ground
animal classification vertebrates humans
Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Humans
  • Genesis 1:24-27, 2:7
  • One difference between man and animals is that God gave man a soul.
  • Man was created separately from the rest of creation and was formed in the likeness and image of God.