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Enzymes. Our guiding question: How do chemical bonds get made and broken in a cell?. Questions-notes on enzymes. 1. List 4 properties of enzymes What is the difference in a reaction with or without an enzyme? Can an enzyme help only one reaction? Explain why-why not.

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enzymes
Enzymes

Our guiding question:

  • How do chemical bonds get made and broken in a cell?
questions notes on enzymes
Questions-notes on enzymes

1. List 4 properties of enzymes

  • What is the difference in a reaction with or without an enzyme?
  • Can an enzyme help only one reaction? Explain why-why not.
  • Can an enzyme be used repeatedly in a reaction? Explain why-why not.
  • Explain what happens to an enzyme when it is heated or placed in an extreme pH (pH is a measure of acid or alkali)?
enzymes an animated tutorial
Enzymes: An animated tutorial

Follow the interactive animations at the following website to answer the questions about enzyme properties.

Enzyme tutorial

4 properties of enzymes
4 Properties of Enzymes
  • Enzymes speed up the rate of chemical reactions
  • Enzymes are NOT changed or used up in the chemical reaction
    • Only small amounts are needed since they are recycled and reused
slide5
Enzymes are specific to one type of chemical reaction
    • The ACTIVE SITE of the enzyme “fits” only the chemical(s) that the enzyme works on (substrate).

4) Enzyme shape is changed (stop working because of shape change) when they are heated or placed in acid (denatured).

protein links
Protein Links
  • Proteins are the body's worker molecules
  • http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/structlife/chapter1.html
  • Explore some proteins (and other molecules) in 3D
  • http://www.umass.edu/molvis/bme3d/materials/explore.html
  • Protein and Enzyme Animations
      • 1. Animation of what happens to the protein in egg white when it is cooked
      • http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/anisamples/nonmajorsbiology/proteinstructure.html
      • 2. Animation of the role of enzymes along a biochemical pathway.
      • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072437316/student_view0/chapter8/animations.html#
      • click on “A Biochemical Pathway”
      • 3. Another animation of enzyme action
      • http://www.hillstrath.on.ca/moffatt/bio3a/digestive/enzanim.htm
  • 4. A good description [with animations] of the properties of enzymes.
  • http://www.lewport.wnyric.org/jwanamaker/animations/Enzyme%20activity.html
  • An explanation of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure in proteins
  • http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/proteins/protein structure.swf
2 types of proteins
2 Types of Proteins

1) Structural – proteins that form physical parts:

Examples –

-keratin (hair and nails)

-actin (muscle)

-microtubules (cell membrane skeletons).

-Collagen (skin)

slide9
2) Functional – Proteins that have an activity:

Examples-

-Signaling – e.g. some hormones are proteins

-Defense – antibodies that recognize foreign invaders

-Transport – Carrier proteins (e.g. hemoglobin carries O2)

-Enzymes – used for chemical reactions (e.g. lactase hydrolyses lactose)

protein shape determines its function
Protein Shape Determines its Function

Example - Fibrous proteins are long and thin, and are used for structure [e.g. collagen]

Example - Enzymes also have a specific shape to recognize a specific substrate [vocabulary] [e.g. lactase]