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Message/Ministry and/or Teaching of Jesus. Introduction to Jesus. Please read the course disclaimer Consider it carefully. Sources for the Life and Teaching of Jesus. The four canonical gospels 3 Synoptics Fourth Gospel References in Acts and letters Josephus Roman historians

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introduction to jesus
Introduction to Jesus
  • Please read the course disclaimer
  • Consider it carefully

Teaching of Jesus - 00

sources for the life and teaching of jesus
Sources for the Life and Teaching of Jesus
  • The four canonical gospels
    • 3 Synoptics
    • Fourth Gospel
    • References in Acts and letters
  • Josephus
  • Roman historians
  • Rabbinic materials
  • Non-canonical gospels

Teaching of Jesus - 00

what are the gospels the gospel genre
What are the gospels? The gospel genre
  • Memoirs (apomnëmoneumata)
  • Acts (praxeis)
  • Lives (bioi)
  • Foundation Narrative
    • Euaggelia
    • Foundational events of the Christian faith
    • Kerygmatic perspective
    • A term coined by Mark for written form

Teaching of Jesus - 00

what are the gospels four gospels
What are the gospels? Four gospels
  • Three gospels, not one gospel
  • The rejection of the harmonistic approach
  • The reason for the gospels
    • The need of the Christian communities
    • The need to proclaim the gospel

Teaching of Jesus - 00

what are the synoptic gospels how gospels arose
What are the synoptic gospels? How gospels arose
  • The rise of the gospels (AD 50-80)
  • The data
    • Similarities in order between Mark, Matthew and Luke
    • Close verbal similarities between Mark and parts of Matthew and Luke
    • Less close verbal similarities between teaching sections in Matthew and Luke
    • Material in Matthew and Luke with no parallel in any other gospel

Teaching of Jesus - 00

what are the synoptic gospels
What are the synoptic gospels?
  • What Jesus said and did was remembered and retold
  • A collection of teaching was put together (= Q)
  • A bit later Mark was written collecting mostly narrative
  • Finally Matthew and Luke combined Mark and Q and their own traditions

Teaching of Jesus - 00

alternative hypothesis
Alternative Hypothesis
  • What Jesus said and did was remembered and retold
  • The telling became standardized into the basic story plus the teaching
  • The basic story was written as Mark
  • The story (expanded) plus the teaching was written as Matthew and Luke

Teaching of Jesus - 00

the role of jesus for the early church
The role of Jesus for the early church
  • Jesus as foundation story
  • Jesus as interpreter of Jewish tradition
  • Jesus as model of Christian life
    • The teaching of Jesus
    • The life-style of Jesus
  • Jesus as model of Christian ministry
    • Jesus' teaching on ministry
    • Jesus' example of ministry

Teaching of Jesus - 00

the virgin birth
The Virgin Birth
  • Redactionally this truth is variously expressed

Teaching of Jesus - 00

luke expresses it precisely
Luke expresses it precisely
  • Dialogue between Mary and the angel (1:34-38)
  • Mary protests that she has not had sexual intercourse
  • The angels responds: God can work the impossible
  • Luke's account revolves around God's visiting his people and reversing their fortunes

Teaching of Jesus - 00

matthew is more indirect
Matthew is more indirect
  • He explores the legal nuances of the event
  • Mary is discovered to be pregnant before the wedding night
  • This required a divorce
    • Deut 22, especially 22:23ff was likely not enforced
    • m. Gittin divorce; m. Sotah the adulteress
    • A divorce required two witnesses
      • Not to divorce his "wife" would be to cover sin and thus partake in it, and Joseph was a "righteous" man

Teaching of Jesus - 00

matthew s indirect story
Matthew’s indirect story
  • Only a direct command of God prevents Joseph from acting
  • The virginity of Mary is further stressed by the remark in 1:25
  • Matthew's account revolves around the "fulfillment" of Isa 7:14
  • Matthew also concerns himself with the question of legitimacy and legality

Teaching of Jesus - 00

the matthean birth narrative
The Matthean birth narrative
  • There is no birth narrative as such in Matthew, but a series of incidents surrounding the birth of Jesus
    • The arrangement of the incidents may be linked to a chain of testamonia
    • Fact which ties all together is that Herod the Great is king

Teaching of Jesus - 00

the genealogy
The Genealogy
  • Matt 1:1 consciously formulated to imitate the formulae of Genesis
  • The genealogy is an edited form of 1 Chron 1-3 (LXX)
    • Four women are mentioned, preparing the way for Mary
    • Names are omitted
    • The last division has 13 names, either because Mary was counted or because a name was dropped in transmission
    • Matt 1:16 is carefully worded to protect both Davidic descent and the virgin birth

Teaching of Jesus - 00

the schematic form 14 x 3 may have a meaning
The schematic form (14 x 3) may have a meaning
  • Waxing and waning moon = rise and fall of Israel's fortunes (Fenton)
  • Gain, loss, regaining of royalty (Plummer, Allen)
  • David repeated 3 times (Hill)
  • The genealogy varies from the Lucan genealogy
    • One or both are creations of the evangelist for theological purposes
    • One is a descent via Mary and the other via Joseph
    • One is the royal line and the other Joseph's actual line

Teaching of Jesus - 00

luke s theme the inclusion of the outcasts and the poor
Luke’s theme = the inclusion of the outcasts and the poor
  • The baby is born in poor circumstances
  • Hired shepherds were “Jews who had made themselves gentiles”
    • Only shepherds receive the visitation
    • The content of the visitation is peace

Teaching of Jesus - 00

in matthew the theme of the birth is the coming of the magi
In Matthew the theme of the birth is the coming of the Magi
  • Herodotus claims they were a Median clan which became a priestly class under the Persians
  • They are clearly pagans, for they refer to "the King of the Jews"
    • Point = pagans come from a distance to worship the baby Jesus
    • They come from the east

Teaching of Jesus - 00

the star
The Star
  • The presence of the star is often traced history-of-religions motifs
    • Num 24:17
    • Stories of astronomical phenomena in connection with the birth of pagan greats
    • Jewish new Moses theme
  • The nature of the star
    • The star is seen "at its rising" and then it apparently is not seen again until after the Magi leave Jerusalem
    • The nature of the star is unknown

Teaching of Jesus - 00

responses to the birth matthew
Responses to the birth: Matthew
  • In Matthew the Jews respond with unbelief
    • Herod is troubled (Cf. 14:26)
    • The whole Sanhedrin is gathered
    • The quotation cited is from neither the MT or the LXX
  • In Matthew the response of the gentiles is worship
    • The meaning of the gifts
      • The giving of gifts = allegiance and submission
      • Were the gifts symbolic?

Teaching of Jesus - 00

the flight into egypt
The Flight into Egypt
  • Dream motif (Cf. 1:20; 2:12, 13, 22 and Cf. 2:19)
  • The flight itself does not use supernatural means
    • The verb anachoresin is used of Moses' flight in Exod 2:15 = new Exodus motif
  • Massacre of the Innocents
    • Reminds one of Egypt in Exod 1-2
    • Only 20 or 30 children would have been involved
    • Jer 31:15 + Gen 35:19

Teaching of Jesus - 00

the return to israel
The Return to Israel
  • Further use of the dream motif
  • Joseph withdraws from a place of unbelief to a place of safety with the gentiles (Galilee of the gentiles)
  • The scripture citation does not exist in the OT

Teaching of Jesus - 00

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