THINGS ARE HEATING UP! In 1812, the rivalry between the NWC and the HBC would be pushed to the point of WARFARE!! Louis Riel Lord Selkirk
The Red River Settlement • In 1812, an event took place that would drastically effect the Metis community, and the HBC and NWC • Eventually, it would lead to the merger of HBC and NWC • It would also lead to a unique settlement in the Northwest being created…
THOMAS DOUGLAS-A Man On a Mission • Aka “Lord Selkirk” • From Scotland • 5th Earl of Selkirk • He was very worried about how enclosure was effecting farmers in Scotland
THOMAS DOUGLAS-A Man On a Mission • Farmers had two options: • Move to the cities and work in the factories • Move to BNA and become farmers • Most farmers were too poor to move to BNA so…
THOMAS DOUGLAS-A Man On a Mission • Lord Selkirk decided to use his fortune to help these farmers • By 1810, he had established settlements in the Maritimes and Upper Canada
THOMAS DOUGLAS-A Man On a Mission • Because he was also an HBC director, he launched a NEW PROJECT… • He knew that the land in the Red River valley was very fertile • He also knew that it was costly for the HBC to ship food for it’s workers from England…
THE PLAN… • Selkirk decided that he could solve two problems at the same time… 1) He could guarantee the farmers someone to sell their crops to! 2) He could save the HBC money!
THE PLAN… See page 144 on your text for a better map! • In 1811, Selkirk convinced the HBC to give him 300 000 km2 in what is now Manitoba and North Dakota. • Selkirk and the HBC felt that they had the right to this land because it was part of Rupert’s Land
THE PLAN… • Neither Selkirk or the HBC gave much thought to the people already living on that land… • Many people thought that this was a CRAZY idea… (see quotes on page 144)
A Rough Beginning… • The first group of people from Scotland and Ireland arrived in 1811 • Their job was to get everything ready for the large group coming in 1812 • They reached York Factory VERY late in the year (1811) and had to stay for the winter there. • The large group arrived as well and were forced to winter 100 km north of their settlement in Fort Pembina
A Rough Beginning… • In the spring of 1813, they finally arrived at the settlement…. • They were overwhelmed by the climate and work • They were devastated when their first crops failed • They had no choice but to return to Fort Pembina for the winter
The Battle of Seven Oaks • In May 1816, a group of Metis raided some HBC boats and stole pemmican which was symbolic of the pemmican that the Metis felt was “stolen” by the Pemmican Proclamation two years earlier (What was it? page 144)
Let’s see if you were listening… • In what way did the Industrial Revolution lead to the settlement in BNA? • What was Lord Selkirk’s real name? • What country was he originally from? • Name the area of land in British North America that was given to Lord Selkirk for his settlement. How big was it (in km2)? • Where did the Scottish and Irish emigrants have to stay for the winter because they arrived much later than they had planned? • BONUS: How was Lord Selkirk’s plan a win-win for the HBC and the Scottish farmers?