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What is Computer Science 1

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What is Computer Science 1

- We learn how to program a computer using a mixture of C and C++
- Basic constructs of the C++ language
- How to design and use simple data structures

- Understand the issues that matter to Computer Scientists and Professional Programmers
- How to write complex programs quickly and efficiently
- How to develop algorithms
- How to organize data
- How to maximize the reuse of data and programs

- This course is the first in a sequence
- CS1 - basic programming
- CS2 - data structure programming
- DSA - advanced programming and data structures

Computer Science I - Martin Hardwick

What you must ask yourself

- Do I want to learn the details of programming?
- Many computing activities such as using a spreadsheet or a database do not require you to understand how to write algorithms
- Getting a program right can take a long time and be very tedious if you do not like sitting in front of a computer trying again and again

- The experience and knowledge can be rewarding
- Many problems in business, science and engineering can only be solved by writing a program
- Most people will have to work with programmers during their careers so understanding what they do should be helpful
- If you want to be a Computer Scientist and have not taken any Computer Science courses then you should start with CS1

Computer Science I - Martin Hardwick

Alternatives

- If you think this course will be too hard but you still want to learn something about programming consider taking
- CSCI 1190 Beginning C Programming for Engineers
- BUT you cannot get credit for CS 1190 and any other CS course

- If you think this course will be too easy consider going straight to CS II
- Recommended for students with AP credit in Computer Science
- You will not enjoy being bored
- You will make it difficult for me to judge how well the course is progressing
- Your fellow students will find it unpleasant watching you rush through the studios

Computer Science I - Martin Hardwick

Organization of CS 1

- Lectures
- On the topic of the previous and following Studio assignments
- Background and context information that you will not get from just doing the studio assignment
- There will be 10 quizzes during the lectures

- Studios
- Break into smaller sections – one TA per section – each section has its own lab time and location
- Progressively learn how to write more complex C++ programs
- Studio attendance is required and will be part of your grade

- Exams
- One final exam – which will also be your last chance to show you know how to write programs and algorithms

- Homework
- 4 Homework’s. First will be given at about Lecture 10.

Computer Science I - Martin Hardwick

Grading

- Look at the rules in the syllabus
- I will follow these rules when computing your grade
- 40% Quizzes (best 8 @ 5% each)
- 20% Studios (best 20 @ 1% each)
- 24% Homeworks (4 @ 6%)
- 16% Final

- A >= 90, B >= 80, C >= 70 D > = 60 F < 60
- I may raise your grade but I will never lower it unless you are caught cheating.

- I will follow these rules when computing your grade
- We make extensive use of RPI LMS in this course
- Distribution of lecture notes (before the lecture)
- Homework assignments
- Distribution of grades for Studios, Homework’s and Exams
- Announcements

- The bulletin board
- A good place to ask questions late at night.
- Do not be rude to me, the TA’s or your fellow students.

Computer Science I - Martin Hardwick

Getting Started

- A computer is a device for solving problems.
- its advantage is its speed

- Programming is nothing more than telling a computer how to solve a specific problem.
- you can’t do this unless you know how to solve the problem yourself

- Steps in using a computer:
- understand the problem to be solved
- figure out how to solve it yourself
- develop an algorithm to solve the problem
- write a program to tell the computer how to solve the problem

Computer Science I - Martin Hardwick

Algorithms

- An algorithm is a step-by-step set of instructions for solving a problem.
- must be complete
- must be unambiguous
- must be in terms that are understood by the reader (man or machine)

- An algorithm must have enough detail for the purpose
- Algorithm to be given to a knowledgeable programmer (less detail)
- Algorithm to be compiled on a machine (more detail)
- In CS 1 nearly all our algorithms will be for the machine

Computer Science I - Martin Hardwick

An Algorithm for people

- How to make a Rocky Road Egg
- Input : One egg. One Piece of bread. One Frying pan. One vat of
margarine. One knife. One stove with burner.

- Algorithm :
- Spread margarine on both sides of bread with knife.
- Cut a hole in the center of the bread with the knife.
- Turn the burner on the stove on.
- Put the frying pan on the turned on burner.
- Put the bread on the frying pan.
- Crack egg in the hole in the bread.
- Wait 1.5 minutes and then flip bread.
- Wait 1 minute then remove bread with egg from frying pan.

- Output : A Rocky Road Egg

- Input : One egg. One Piece of bread. One Frying pan. One vat of

Computer Science I - Martin Hardwick

A machine Algorithm has to be very detailed

- Because a computer can only:
- add two numbers
- subtract two numbers
- multiply two numbers
- divide two numbers
- compare two numbers to determine which is bigger
- based on a comparison, jump to a different part of a program
- save a number in a word of memory or a register
- fetch a number from a word of memory or a register
- read data from an input device
- write data to an output device
- read and write data to secondary storage
- interpret numbers as characters (e.g., letters of the alphabet)

- Fortunately the compiler breaks our C++ algorithms into these really simple pieces
- In CS 1 we will learn how to write C++ algorithms and how to use the C++ compiler to convert them into programs.

Computer Science I - Martin Hardwick

I/O Devices

RAM (memory)

Central Processing

Unit (CPU)

Registers

Secondary Storage

Computer OrganizationOur programs manipulate this.

As we advance we will learn

more about its details

- Sometimes called random access memory (RAM).
- Stores the numbers (data) that a program uses when it runs on the computer.
- Also stores the instructions of the program that is running on the computer.
- Divided into fixed size units of memory called words.
- each word stores one number

Data

Program

Instructions

Computer Science I - Martin Hardwick

Number Systems

- You are familiar with the base 10 number system in which each digit of a number is multiplied by a power of 10.
- for example: 4325 = 4x103 + 3x102 + 2x101 + 5x100
- for example: 103.23 = 1x102 + 0x101 + 3x100 + 2x10-1 + 3x10-2

- Other number systems with a base different from 10 work in a similar fashion.
- base 8 number system: 521.48 = 5x82 + 2x81 + 1x80 + 4x8-1 (337.5)
- base 2 number system: 101.12 = 1x22 + 0x21 + 1x20 + 1x2-1 (5.5)

- A base X number system uses X symbols for digits.
- namely, the symbols: 0, 1, …, X-1

- Two number systems are widely used in computers
- binary -- base 2 with digits 0 and 1
- hexadecimal -- base 16 with digits 0, 1, 2, …, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F
- 12A4F16 = 1x164 + 2x163 + 10x162 + 4x161 + 15x160 (76367)

Computer Science I - Martin Hardwick

Computer Number System Examples

10110101110001011001110011110110 binary number

11 5 12 5 9 12 15 6

equivalent base 10 value for each group of 4 consecutive binary digits (bits)

B 5 C 5 9 C F 6

corresponding hexadecimal (base 16) digit

B5C59CF6

equivalent hexadecimal number

Computer Science I - Martin Hardwick

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