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Cell Theory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Cell Theory. All living things are made of cells Cells are the basic unit of life Cells today come only from other living cells. Robert Hooke first saw cells in 1665. The Structure of a Cell. All cells have Plasma membrane Cytosol DNA Ribosomes. Two Major Types of Cells. Prokaryotic

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cell theory
Cell Theory
  • All living things are made of cells
  • Cells are the basic unit of life
  • Cells today come only from other living cells

Robert Hooke first saw cells in 1665

the structure of a cell
The Structure of a Cell
  • All cells have
    • Plasma membrane
    • Cytosol
    • DNA
    • Ribosomes
two major types of cells
Two Major Types of Cells
  • Prokaryotic
    • No membrane bound organelles
    • Make up Domains Archaea and Eubacteria
  • Eukaryotic
    • Membrane-bound organelles
    • Make up Kingdoms Plantae, Animalia, Protista, and Fungi
overview of an animal cell
Overview of an animal cell

Cytoplasm:

everything inside the cell but the nucleus

cell size
Cell size

The human body has over 5 billion cells. The largest animal is the blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus. It is known to reach lengths over 100 feet (30+ meters) and weigh 120 tons.

cell size1
Cell size

So, why aren’t there organisms composed of one really big cell?

surface area and volume
Surface Area and Volume
        • Surface area of a sphere = 4r2
  • Volume of a sphere = (4/3) r3
  • So as a sphere gets bigger,
  • its volume increases faster than its surface area
let s look at the interior of eukaryotic cells
Let’s look at the interior of Eukaryotic cells…
  • Nucleus
  • Ribosomes
  • Endomembrane System
    • Nuclear envelope
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Golgi Apparatus
    • Vesicles
    • Lysosomes
    • Vacuoles
  • Other organelles: mitochondria, chloroplasts, peroxisomes
  • Cytoskeleton
in the rough er proteins are modified by the addition of a carbohydrate group
In the rough ER, proteins are modified by the addition of a carbohydrate group

H2N

COOH

Protein

Now = GLYCOPROTEIN

Carbohydrate group

slide18

THE SECRETORY PATHWAY: A MODEL

RNA

1. Proteins are synthesized in the RER

Rough ER

2. Protein exits RER in a vesicle.

cis face of Golgi apparatus

3. Protein travels through the cisternae of the Golgi apparatus.

4. Protein enters a secretory vesicle that fuses with cell membrane.

trans face of Golgi apparatus

Plasma membrane

5. Protein is secreted from cell.