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Project of Tabouna Cover. Abdelkarim GHEZAL Agence Nationale pour la Maîtrise de l’Energie. Wood Energy in Tunisia. The available supply of dry wood was estimated in 1997 to about 2,630 million tonnes.

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Project of TabounaCover

Abdelkarim GHEZAL

Agence Nationale pour la Maîtrise de l’Energie

wood energy in tunisia
Wood Energy in Tunisia
  • The availablesupply of dry woodwasestimated in 1997 to about 2,630 million tonnes.
  • The demand for woodenergycomesessentiallyfromresidentialsector 98% of consumption.
  • Rural households : 92% of the fuelwoodconsumption of the residentialsector.
  • Preparation of bread: about 50% of rural residentialconsumption.
  • Only the central regionis surplus - Other areas are deficient (coveragerangingfrom 50% to 65%).
  • The public effort wasorientedtowards the implementation of actions and mechanisms for reducingconsumption.
pilot project
Pilot Project
  • ANME launched in the late 80s, early actions to rationalize the use of woodenergy.
  • withGermancooperation, a pilot projectwaslaunched in the Kef region in 1990.
  • Between 1990 and 1991, socio-economic investigations wereconducted to understand the characteristics of woodconsumption by households.
  • These investigations have shown the importance of including the consumption of wood for the preparation of traditionalbread, whichled to considerthis practice as a prioritytarget in the pilot project.
  • At the end of 1992, after a period of testing and monitoring in the field, the option tabounawithmetalcoverwaschosen.
tabouna cover
  • Equipping the tabounaovenwith a lidwas the mostpromising solution to reduce the consumption of firewood.
  • The lidis made out of sheetsteel and isfixed by a hinge on to the tabouna.
  • When the tabounais in use, the lidisclosed, thusretaining a large proportion of the energythatisnormallylostwith the traditionaltabouna.
  • The evaluation of the demonstration phase has shownthatthistechnologymakereduction of about 50% of the consumption of wood for tabouna. This technique wasthenused for the extension phase.
extension phase
Extension Phase
  • Duringthis phase, ANME tried to prepare the conditions and sustainablemechanisms for the widedissemination of the cover.
  • The ideawas to promote a commercial release by introducingmarketmechanisms:
    • Creation of a network of 12 artisans in the North West
    • Awareness and outreach in rural areas
    • Identify and attempt to involve the shops of traders in rural areas (Hanout) to ensure local relaybroadcast
dissemination phase
Dissemination Phase
  • Giventhesedifficulties, ANME abounded commercial distribution approach and ensured by itsownmeans, the distribution door to doorcovers.
  • The sellingprice of the coverwas set at 3 DT, a grantfrom the ANME of about 6 DT per unit.
  • Given the limitedhuman and logisticalresources of ANER the scope of dissemination has been modest, not exceeding 1,000 households per year.
  • Since 2000, ANME has adopted a new strategybased on local NGOs as a relaybroadcast.
  • The lids are provided free of charge to NGOs
  • ANME has signedagreementswith 20 NGOsworkingmainly in the North West.
project results
Project Results
  • Potentialtabounacovers: 200,000.
  • End of 2006: Only 14 000 coversweredistributed (7% of potential).
  • Demandsexpressed by NGOs > Budget of ANME
  • The program has failed to establishsustainablemechanisms for disseminationbased on a marketapproach:
  • The cost of the coverishigherthanwhathouseholdscanpayfoit
  • Lack of appropriateawareness
  • The diffuse nature of the market
  • The dominance of the non-commercial woodsupplywhichdoes not permit financialvaluation of woodsavedthrough the use of cover.
  • Lack of local broadcast relay
project impacts
Project Impacts
  • Accordingto studies, the use of coversaves on average 50% of the wood for tabouna. On this basis, the annuel energysavingscanbeestimatedat about 2.8 ktoe.
  • In terms of wood, the program has to avoid the consumption of approximately 5600 tons of wood/year.
  • Social impacts of the program are primarilyrelated to the reduction of the burden on women to collectfirewood

Thank You