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INFORMATICA UMANISTICA D: LESSICOGRAFIA & COMPUTER. Dizionari elettronici WordNet. Dizionari elettronici. Strumenti informatici usati non piu’ solo per realizzare dizionari cartacei, ma per sviluppare nuovi tipi di dizionari che consentono nuove forme di ricerca.

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Dizionari elettronici
Dizionari elettronici

Strumenti informatici usati non piu’ solo per realizzare dizionari cartacei, ma per sviluppare nuovi tipi di dizionari che consentono nuove forme di ricerca


Dizionari per l inglese in forma elettronica
DIZIONARI PER L’INGLESE IN FORMA ELETTRONICA

  • Oxford English Dictionary, seconda edizione

  • Oxford Talking Dictionary

  • Concise Oxford Dictionary

  • Learner dictionaries:

    • Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDOCE)

    • Collins COBUILD English Dictionary


Concise oxford dictionary
CONCISE OXFORD DICTIONARY

  • RICERCA:

    • Headword search (con *)

    • Hypertext search

    • Full text search (also of phrases / groups)

  • FILTRI:

    • etymology, phrasal verbs, suffixes


Collins cobuild
COLLINS: COBUILD

  • Disponibile da:

    • http://www.biblio.unitn.it/BancheDati/BancheDati.asp


Dizionari elettronici per l italiano
DIZIONARI ELETTRONICI PER L’ITALIANO

  • Il VELI

  • Zanichelli: CD-ROM Multilingue, Scaffale Elettronico

  • Devoto-Oli

  • Garzanti: IPA  `parla’



Esempio devoto oli
ESEMPIO: DEVOTO-OLI

  • Ricerca normale

    • Forme di citazione (incrementale)

  • Hyperlinks

  • Definizione / declinazione

  • Sinonimi / contrari

  • Ricerca avanzata

  • No: pronuncia; citazioni?

  • Limitato: storico



Esempio zingarelli interattivo
ESEMPIO:ZINGARELLI INTERATTIVO


Informatica umanistica d lessicografia computer
MRDS

  • Distinzione importante:

    • Dizionari consultabili elettronicamente

    • Dizionari MACHINE READABLE

    • Dizionari MACHINE TRACTABLE

  • Particolarmente utili: dizionari creati per EFL:

    • LDOCE

    • COBUILD

  • Progetto piu’ ambizioso: ODE in XML


Esempio ode su cd rom in xml
ESEMPIO: ODE su CD-ROM (in XML)

Esempio di database lessicografico in XML (= estremamente machine tractable)


Ode in xml overview
ODE IN XML: OVERVIEW


Ode in xml formato delle entries
ODE IN XML: FORMATO DELLE ENTRIES

<se>

<cn>815750</cn>

- <hg> <hw>stock</hw> </hg>

<s1>

<ps>noun</ps>

- <s2 num="1">

- <df>the goods or merchandise kept on the premises of a shop or warehouse and available for sale or distribution:</df>

<ex>the store has a very low turnover of stock</ex>

|

  </S2>

<S2 num=“2”>

…… </S2>

</S1> <s1> <ps>adjective</ps>

…..


Ode in xml informazioni nlp
ODE IN XML: INFORMAZIONI NLP

-<nlp>

<sup>merchandise</sup>

<ss>Commerce</ss>

- <morph id="01">

- <mu sy="NN">

<inf>stock</inf>

<ph>stQk</ph>

</mu>

+ <mu sy="NNS">

<ph>stQks</ph>

</mu>

</morph>

</nlp>


Eldit
ELDIT

  • (Elektronisches Lern(er)wörterbuch Deutsch-Italienisch – Dizionario elettronico per apprendenti italiano-tedesco )

  • Un esempio di dizionario

    • Per apprendimento

    • Nato in forma elettronica

  • Lezione su ELDIT: il 14/5



Semantica lessico un riassunto

EAT-LEX-1

SEMANTICA & LESSICO: UN RIASSUNTO

“eat”

“eats”

eat0600

eat0700

“ate”

“eaten”

WORD-FORMS

LEXEMES

SENSES


L organizzazione del lessico

STOCK-LEX-1

STOCK-LEX-2

STOCK-LEX-3

L’ORGANIZZAZIONE DEL LESSICO

stock0100

stock0200

stock0600

“stock”

stock0700

stock0900

stock1000

WORD-FORMS

LEXEMES

SENSES


Sinonimia

CHEAP-LEX-1

CHEAP-LEX-2

INEXP-LEX-3

SINONIMIA

cheap0100

“cheap”

….

……

cheapXXXX

inexp0900

“inexpensive”

inexpYYYY

WORD-FORMS

LEXEMES

SENSES


Wordnet1
WORDNET

  • A lexical database created at Princeton

    • Freely available for research from the Princeton site

    • http://www.cogsci.princeton.edu/~wn/

  • Information about a variety of SEMANTICAL RELATIONS

  • Three sub-databases (supported by psychological research as early as (Fillenbaum and Jones, 1965))

    • NOUNs

    • VERBS

    • ADJECTIVES and ADVERBS

  • Each database organized around SYNSETS


Synsets
SYNSETS

  • Senses (or `lexicalized concepts’) are represented in WordNet by the set of words that can be used in AT LEAST ONE CONTEXT to express that sense / lexicalized concept: the SYNSET

  • E.g.,

    {chump, fish, fool, gull, mark, patsy, fall guy, sucker, shlemiel, soft touch, mug}(gloss: person who is gullible and easy to take advantage of)


Il database dei nomi
IL DATABASE DEI NOMI

  • About 90,000 forms, 116,000 senses

  • Relations:


Ipernimia
IPERNIMIA

2 senses of robin                                                       Sense 1robin, redbreast, robin redbreast, Old World robin, Erithacus rubecola -- (small Old World songbird with a reddish breast)       => thrush -- (songbirds characteristically having brownish upper plumage with a spotted breast)           => oscine, oscine bird -- (passerine bird having specialized vocal apparatus)               => passerine, passeriform bird -- (perching birds mostly small and living near the ground with feet having 4 toes arranged to allow for gripping the perch; most are songbirds; hatchlings are helpless)                   => bird -- (warm-blooded egg-laying vertebrates characterized by feathers and forelimbs modified as wings)                       => vertebrate, craniate -- (animals having a bony or cartilaginous skeleton with a segmented spinal column and a large brain enclosed in a skull or cranium)                           => chordate -- (any animal of the phylum Chordata having a notochord or spinal column)                               => animal, animate being, beast, brute, creature, fauna -- (a living organism characterized by voluntary movement)                                   => organism, being -- (a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently)                                       => living thing, animate thing -- (a living (or once living) entity)                                           => object, physical object --                                                => entity, physical thing --


Meronimia
MERONIMIA

wn beak –holon

Holonyms of noun beak

1 of 3 senses of beak

Sense 2

beak, bill, neb, nib

PART OF: bird


Verbi
VERBI

  • About 10,000 forms, 20,000 senses

  • Relations between verb meanings:


Relazioni tra significati verbali
RELAZIONI TRA SIGNIFICATI VERBALI

V1 ENTAILS V2 when Someone V1 (logically) entails Someone V2- e.g., snore entails sleep

TROPONYMY when To do V1 is To do V2 in some manner- e.g., limp is a troponym of walk


Aggettivi avverbi
AGGETTIVI & AVVERBI

  • About 20,000 adjective forms, 30,000 senses

  • 4,000 adverbs, 5600 senses

  • Relations:


Come usarlo
COME USARLO

  • Online: http://cogsci.princeton.edu/cgi-bin/webwn

  • Scaricatevelo, poi da command line:

    • Get synonyms:

      • wn –synsn bank

    • Get hypernyms:

      • wn –hypen robin

    • (also for adjectives and verbs): get antonyms

      • wn –antsa right


I limiti di wordnet
I LIMITI DI WORDNET

  • Coverage

    • words not in WordNet

      • Crocidolite, spinoff (spin-off)

    • Missing information: MERONYMY

  • Context-dependent senses:

    • slump, crash, bust all synonyms in the WSJ corpus

  • The structure of WordNet

    • Some information is encoded in complex ways (room, wall, floor)

  • But: MOVING TARGET!!


Meronimia in wordnet un esperimento
MERONIMIA IN WORDNET: UN ESPERIMENTO

  • 100 bridging descriptions in a mereological relation

  • Ran a script trying to find a direct link in WordNet (1.7) between one of the senses of the BD and one of the senses of any of the previous NPs

  • Results: in only 6 cases there is in WordNet a direct lexical relation between a BD and one of the CFs


John looked at the house the wall was crumbling

ARTIFACT

IS-A

IS-A

HOUSING

BUILDING

IS-A

IS-A

PART-OF

HOUSE

HOME

ROOM

PART-OF

PART-OF

WALL

FLOOR

John looked at the HOUSE. The WALL was crumbling.


Soluzione acquisizione lessicale
SOLUZIONE: ACQUISIZIONE LESSICALE

  • Parziale (aggiungi informazioni a WordNet, specialmente per domini specialistici)

  • Totale (crei un nuovo lessico a partire da zero)


Letture
LETTURE

  • Jackson, cap. 6.7

  • Marello, cap. 5.5

  • C. Fellbaum. WordNet: An electronic lexical database. MIT Press, 1998

    • cap. 1