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Malnutrition Defined

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  1. Malnutrition Defined Text extracted from The World Food Problem Leathers & Foster, 2004 http://www.lastfirst.net/images/product/R004548.jpg

  2. Malnutrition • Overnutrition • Undernutrition • Secondary Malnutrition • Micronutrient Malnutrition • Protein Energy Malnutrition • Most important Protein Energy Malnutrition

  3. Undernutrition http://www.answers.com/topic/percentage-population-undernourished-world-map-png-1

  4. Secondary Malnutrition • Diet normal • Food not digested or absorbed • Diarrhea • Parasites Tapeworm

  5. Micronutrient Malnutrition • Deficiency in: • Vitamin A • Iodine • Iron • Zinc • Calcium • Vitamin D • B Vitamins • Vitamin C Rickets (Vitamin D deficiency)

  6. Vitamin A Deficiency • 500,000 children become blind each year • xerophthalmia • Half of these will die within a year of becoming blind • Rice diet lacking green vegetables • Vitamin supplements help: cost $3/year • Golden Rice could help

  7. Iodine Deficiency • Iodine deficiency • affects 740 million people worldwide • single greatest cause of preventable brain damage in babies • Goiter • Stillbirth • Miscarriages • Mental Retardation • Prevented by iodized salt • Best sources of natural iodine • Sea weed • Sea food Goiter (thyroid enlargement)

  8. Iron Deficiency Anemia • Affects 2 billion people, • 90% live in developing countries • 39% of preschool children • 52% of pregnant women • Reduced • physical activity • mental activity • Increased • birth mortality • Worms • Malaria • HIV • High iron rice could help

  9. Iron, Vitamin A & Iodine Deficiency http://www.css.cornell.edu/FoodSystems/Micros&AgriMan1ref.htg/img4.gif

  10. Other Deficiencies • Zinc • Growth retardation • delayed sexual maturation • skin and eye lesions • 48% of world at risk for zinc deficiency • Calcium • Osteoporosis: bone loss • Vitamin D • Rickets: bone malformation

  11. Other Deficiencies • Vitamin C • Causes Scurvy: problem in refugee camps • Niacin • Causes Pellagra: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia • Due to diet high in maize (low in tryptophan) • Thiamin • Causes Beriberi • Due to diet high in polished rice • Folate • Birth defects: Anancephaly and Spina Bifida

  12. Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) • Underconsumption of calories or protein • Most important form of malnutrition • Associated with poverty • Not enough food • Poor quality food • Kwashiorkor • Extreme protein deficiency • Marasmus • Extreme calorie deficiency Kwashiorkor

  13. Kwashiorkor • Protein deficiency often associated with weaning onto thin cereal gruels. • Cassava • Plantains • Bloating of the stomach due to edema • Fluid leaking into body • Wasted muscles • Antibodies degraded to provide protein to body • Infection • Dysentery • Death

  14. Marasmus • Calorie deficiency • Lack of food • Poorest populations • Neglected • Infants • children • Protein used for energy • Results in wasting • Deterioration of tissues • Brain development impaired

  15. Balanced Protein • Protein are made of amino acids • Essential amino acids • Body cannot make • Required in diet • Animal proteins have perfect balance of amino acids • Meat • Milk • Eggs

  16. Complementing Proteins • Plant proteins are deficient in different essential amino acids • Cereals • Low in lysine • Beans • Low in methionine • Must eat both cereal and beans together to get balanced amino acids • Complementing proteins Rice and Beans

  17. Calorie Deficiency • Most widespread problem among poor • Cannot get enough calories (energy) in diet • Most get enough protein • Calorie requirements vary • Age • Sex • Pregnancy • Lactation

  18. Nutritional Needs • RDA • Recommended Daily Allowance • Level of nutrients adequate for 97-98% of the group • Good target for individuals • EAR • Estimated Average Requirement • Level of nutrients adequate for ½ individuals in group • Always lower than RDA • Good target for average intake of a group http://www.fda.gov/diabetes/pyramid.gif