malnutrition n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Malnutrition PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Malnutrition

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 29

Malnutrition - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 118 Views
  • Uploaded on

Malnutrition. Sources: The World Food Problem Leathers & Foster, 2009 The Omnivore’s Dilemma Michael Pollan, 2006. http://www.amazon.com/World-Food-Problem-Toward-Undernutrition/dp/1588266389. Malnutrition. Undernutrition Lack of nutrients Calories Protein Micronutrients

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Malnutrition' - lakeisha


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
malnutrition

Malnutrition

Sources:

The World Food Problem

Leathers & Foster, 2009

The Omnivore’s Dilemma

Michael Pollan, 2006

http://www.amazon.com/World-Food-Problem-Toward-Undernutrition/dp/1588266389

malnutrition1
Malnutrition
  • Undernutrition
    • Lack of nutrients
      • Calories
      • Protein
      • Micronutrients
    • Low income countries
  • Overnutrition
    • Obesity
      • Too many calories
    • High and middle income countries

http://i105.photobucket.com/albums/m203/sspasha/Malnutrition.jpg

undernutrition
Undernutrition
  • Undernutrition
    • Secondary Malnutrition
    • Micronutrient Malnutrition
    • Protein Energy Malnutrition
      • Most important

Severe Protein Energy Malnutrition

http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/kabernd/seminar/2002/tech/malnutrition.jpg

global undernutrition
Global Undernutrition

http://paperdreamer.files.wordpress.com/2008/04/world_hunger_map.jpg

secondary malnutrition
Secondary Malnutrition
  • Diet normal
  • Food not digested or absorbed
    • Diarrhea
    • Parasites

Tapeworm

micronutrient malnutrition
Micronutrient Malnutrition
  • Deficiency in:
    • Vitamin A
    • Iodine
    • Iron
    • Zinc
    • Calcium
    • Vitamin D
    • B Vitamins
    • Vitamin C

Rickets (Vitamin D deficiency)

http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/homs/rickets.jpg

vitamin a deficiency
Vitamin A Deficiency
  • Night Blindness
    • 500,000 children/year
    • xerophthalmia
  • Half of these will die
    • within a year of becoming blind
  • Rice diet lacking green vegetables
    • Vitamin supplements help: cost $3/year
    • Golden Rice could help
  • xerophthalmia

http://www.vitaminsdiary.com/UserFiles/Image/keratomalacia.jpg

vitamin a deficiency1
Vitamin A Deficiency

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7d/Vitamin_A_deficiency.PNG/800px-Vitamin_A_deficiency.PNG

iodine deficiency
Iodine Deficiency
  • Iodine deficiency
    • affects 740 million people worldwide
    • single greatest cause of preventable brain damage in babies
    • Goiter
    • Stillbirth
    • Miscarriages
    • Mental Retardation
  • Prevented by iodized salt
  • Best sources of natural iodine
    • Sea weed
    • Sea food

Goiter (thyroid enlargement)

http://www.voanews.com/english/images/emory_edu_goiter_Iodine_Deficiency_Disorder_195_eng_11may06_0.jpg

38 million newborns are not protected from iodine deficiency
38 million newborns are not protected from iodine deficiency

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.unicef.org/progressforchildren/2007n6/images/pfc6_sources_of_data_used_in_unicef_analysis_2000-2006.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.unicef.org/progressforchildren/2007n6/index_41796.htm&h=361&w=600&sz=20&hl=en&start=75&sig2=xIUDzxMbqzKvhSoLjqx6cw&um=1&tbnid=AHRtpUj1tsOS5M:&tbnh=81&tbnw=135&ei=AptlSJ6DD6fuigHGy4y7Cw&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dunicef%26start%3D60%26ndsp%3D20%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26rlz%3D1B3GGGL_enUS240US242%26sa%3DN

iron deficiency anemia
Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • Affects 2 billion people,
  • 90% live in developing countries
    • 39% of preschool children
    • 52% of pregnant women
  • Reduced
    • physical activity
    • mental activity
  • Increased
    • birth mortality
    • Worms
    • Malaria
    • HIV
  • High iron rice could help

http://www.micronutrient.org/reports/images/Page16Image.jpg

other deficiencies
Other Deficiencies
  • Zinc
    • Growth retardation
    • delayed sexual maturation
    • skin and eye lesions
    • 48% of world at risk for zinc deficiency
  • Calcium
    • Osteoporosis: bone loss
  • Vitamin D
    • Rickets: bone malformation
      • Not enough sunlight exposure:
        • Swaddled babies

Swaddled babies at risk for Rickets: not enough sunlight

http://www.ulanbatoronline.org/cammp_section/article_images_lamc_latimes/scans/latimes_images/thumbnails/babyswaddle.jpg

other deficiencies1
Other Deficiencies
  • Vitamin C
    • Causes Scurvy: problem in refugee camps
  • Niacin
    • Causes Pellagra: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia
    • Due to diet high in maize (low in tryptophan)
  • Thiamin
    • Causes Beriberi
    • Due to diet high in polished rice
  • Folate
    • Birth defects: Anancephaly and Spina Bifida

Scurvy

http://www.athropolis.com/arctic-facts/misc/scurvy.jpg

protein energy malnutrition pem
Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM)
  • Underconsumption of calories or protein
  • Most important form of malnutrition
  • Associated with poverty
    • Not enough food
    • Poor quality food
  • Kwashiorkor
    • Extreme protein deficiency
  • Marasmus
    • Extreme calorie deficiency

Kwashiorkor

kwashiorkor
Kwashiorkor
  • Protein deficiency often associated with weaning onto thin cereal gruels.
    • Cassava
    • Plantains
  • Bloating of the stomach due to edema
    • Fluid leaking into body
    • Wasted muscles
  • Antibodies degraded to provide protein to body
    • Infection
    • Dysentery
    • Death

http://www.imageenvision.com/md2/sym_0004-0703-1422-2622_nurse_standing_with_a_group_of_african_children_showing_symptoms_of_the_protein-deficiency_disease_kwashiorkor.jpg

marasmus
Marasmus
  • Calorie deficiency
    • Lack of food
    • Poorest populations
    • Neglected
      • Infants
      • children
  • Protein used for energy
  • Results in wasting
    • Deterioration of tissues
  • Brain development impaired
overnutrition
Overnutrition
  • Consumption of too many calories
    • Obesity
  • Medical problems
    • Heart disease
    • Diabetes
    • Cancer

http://www.mercola.com/images/blog/2005/01.01.junkfood.gif

overnutrition1
Overnutrition
  • Global problem
    • Overnutrition has surpassed undernutrition
      • Worst in middle and high income countries
      • Rising in low income countries
    • Can co-exist with undernutrition
      • Same country
      • Same household
    • Projected to get worse as incomes rise
  • Industrial food
    • High in calories

http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2008/05/16/article-0-064EFCA50000044D-848_468x296.jpg

industrial food
Industrial Food
  • Economies of scale
    • Industrial agriculture
      • Commodity grains
    • Factory farm animals
      • Confinement
  • Processing
    • White flour
    • Corn and soy ingredients
  • Low Prices
    • Must sell more
      • Supersizing
      • Fat and sugar added
      • New products

http://www.salembargains.com/Images/Cereal-Aisle2.jpg

global overnutrition
Global Overnutrition

http://news.bbc.co.uk/nolpda/ukfs_news/hi/newsid_7151000/7151813.stm

global overnutrition1
Global Overnutrition

http://www.fao.org/FOCUS/E/obesity/obes3.htm

http://www.fao.org/FOCUS/E/obesity/obes1.htm

overnutrition in the usa
Overnutrition in the USA
  • Overweight population
    • 2/3 of adults
    • 1/3 of children
  • Reasons
    • Excess fat, sugar in diet
    • Not enough fiber
    • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Poor are overweight
    • Industrial food inexpensive
      • Fast food
      • Processed
      • Energy dense
    • Fruits, vegetables more expensive

http://www.epidemiologic.org/obesity/obesity-epidemic2004-msn-small.JPG

slide23

http://www.geographyalltheway.com/ib_geography/ib_resources/imagesetc/obesity_poverty.jpghttp://www.geographyalltheway.com/ib_geography/ib_resources/imagesetc/obesity_poverty.jpg

overnutrition rising in developing countries
Overnutrition rising in developing countries
  • Increase in global food market
    • Industrial food
  • Urbanization
    • Fast Food
  • Diet change
    • Decline in traditional diet
    • Increased meat

http://www.fao.org/FOCUS/E/obesity/obes2.htm

balanced protein
Balanced Protein
  • Protein are made of amino acids
  • Essential amino acids
    • Body cannot make
    • Required in diet
  • Animal proteins have perfect balance of amino acids
    • Meat
    • Milk
    • Eggs

http://www.ibabuzz.com/allyoucaneat/wp-content/uploads/2007/09/eggs.jpg

complementing proteins
Complementing Proteins
  • Plant proteins
    • are deficient in different essential amino acids
  • Cereals
    • Low in lysine
  • Beans
    • Low in methionine
  • Must eat both cereal and beans together
    • To get balanced amino acids
    • Complementing proteins

Rice and Beans

http://www.d16acbl.org/U174/black%20beans.jpg

calorie deficiency
Calorie Deficiency
  • Most widespread problem among poor
  • Cannot get enough calories (energy) in diet
    • Most get enough protein
  • Calorie requirements vary
    • Age
    • Sex
    • Pregnancy
    • Lactation
nutritional needs
Nutritional Needs
  • RDA
    • Recommended Daily Allowance
    • Level of nutrients adequate for 97-98% of the group
    • Good target for individuals
  • EAR
    • Estimated Average Requirement
    • Level of nutrients adequate for ½ individuals in group
    • Always lower than RDA
    • Good target for average intake of a group

http://www.fda.gov/diabetes/pyramid.gif