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  1. Lab Make-Ups If you missed the strawberry lab or the candy dye lab you need to Borden ASAP to sign-up. The Candy dye lab kit will be returning to Fred Hutch Thurs., March 1 and will not be available after that.

  2. Warm-up DNA Review 2/22/07 Write the DNA strand and complimentary base pairs that match: #1 AGC AGG CTT AGT ACT CGA #2 GCT AGT ACC CAT CTG GAT

  3. AGENDA • Warm-up • Stamp Obj. 12.3 • Go over dye lab results • Notes: Transcription/Translation • In class activity transcription/translation • Discuss lab on for Monday • No homework

  4. Transcription and Translation: Protein synthesis

  5. What we already know… • DNA encodes the information to make proteins • DNA cannot leave the nucleus • Protein synthesis occurs outside of the nucleus, on a ribosome

  6. How does it happen? DNA encodes the information to make RNA.........and RNA molecules function together to make protein

  7. Structure of RNA • Single stranded • Built of nucleotide • 5-Carbon Sugar = ribose sugar • Phosphate Group • Nitrogenous base: • Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, and Cytosine


  9. 3 Types of RNA • Messenger RNA (mRNA) • carries information to ribosomes for protein production • Transfer RNA (tRNA) • brings specified amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosomes where the protein chain is made • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) • the ribosome and protein

  10. 3 Types of RNA

  11. Transcription DNA  mRNA

  12. Transcription • molecule of DNA is copied into a complementary strand of mRNA • Occurs in the nucleus

  13. How does it happen? • DNA unzips and exposes one gene as a template • A complementary strand of RNA is formed • A – U • G – C • mRNA strand exits nucleus & moves into cytoplasm • The two strands of DNA re-attach and recoil

  14. Try it yourself … • Transcribe Strand 1 of the DNA molecules below • 1 - T T A G G A C T G C A A T T G 2 - A A T C C T G A C G T T A A C • 1 - C A G T C C G A A C G T T T A 2 - G T C A G G C T T G C A A A T

  15. Answers • A A U C C U G A C G U U A A C • G U C A G G C U U G C A A A U

  16. Translation mRNA  protein

  17. Translation • mRNA is “read” & a protein is created from amino acids • Occurs at ribosome

  18. Steps of Translation 1. mRNA moves to ribosomes 2. rRNA on the ribosome binds to the mRNA and starts “reading” codons. • Codons – 3 letter code that specifies a particular amino acid. • start codon = AUG • stop codon = UAA, UAG, or UGA 3. AUG binds to the first anticodon of tRNA

  19. 4. tRNA transfer amino acids until the rRNA reaches a stop codon on the mRNA 5. ribosome releases protein and mRNA • protein to be used by the cell • mRNA to synthesize more protein molecules

  20. mRNA-amino acid chart

  21. Try it yourself! • DNA template strand DNA: TACGATCGAACGTAT • mRNA codon: • tRNA anticodon: • Amino Acids :

  22. Transcription/Translation video • Transcription/Translation Activity • Tape your work into lab notebook, do not take home the main worksheet

  23. mRNA Activity • Here is a strand of mRNA. Arrange your tRNA molecules to determine the sequence of Amino Acids that this mRNA codes for. • AUG CUA UCA UCA UAU GGA GUA ACU AGU UUU CGC AUU CCG CAU ACA CGG GUU  CUC CCU CAC AGG UGG GGG UGU CUA ACC  UUA CCC GCA UCG UAA

  24. Mutations • Mutations lead to mistakes in the proteins being made. • Mutations can happen during DNA replication and change the “blueprint of the cell” Or During transcription or translation so a wrong protein or no protein is made

  25. Types of mutation • Point mutation- one nucleotide changes • Frameshift mutation- an insertion or deletion of a nucleotide that changes all codons after that point • Chromosomal mutation- all of the genes on a certain chromosome can be affected. Or change the location of genes on the chromosome.

  26. Transcription • The information in the DNA not only contains amino acid (aa) sequences, it also has “junk” DNA. • Exon: RNA that codes for a.a. • Intron: junk RNA/DNA • Enzymes in the nucleus snip out the exon and the RNA molecule is protected and sent outside of the cell.

  27. mRNA splicing