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The Industrial Revolution. What does the title of this book mean?. Think …. What are the advantages of making items (stationary, clothes, cars) by hand? What are the disadvantages? What are the advantages of mass-production? What are the disadvantages?

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what does the title of this book mean

The Industrial Revolution

What does the title of this book mean?

Think …
  • What are the advantages of making items (stationary, clothes, cars) by hand?
  • What are the disadvantages?
  • What are the advantages of mass-production?
  • What are the disadvantages?
  • Do you think that factories were an improvement in making products? Why?
Imagine …

You are a 15-yr-old living in England where the Industrial Revolution has spurred the growth of 1000s of factories. Cheap labor is in great demand. Like millions of other teenagers, you don’t go to school. Instead you work in a factory 6 days a week, 14 hrs a day. The small pay you earn is needed to help support your family. You trudge to work before dawn every day & work until after sundown. The dangerous machines injure your fellow workers. Minding the machines is exhausting, dirty, & dangerous. Inside the factory the air is foul, & it’s so dark it’s hard to see inside.

What emotions does this photograph stir?

How do you think these children feel?


How old does this girl appear to be?

How does her life appear to differ from yours at that age?


Working in the Factories

Would you join a union, go to school, or run away? Why?


Working in the Factory

Which conditions concern you the most?


How have times changed?

How are they similar?

factors that spurred growth
Factors that Spurred Growth
  • Agricultural Revolution
  • Rise in Population
  • Great Britain’s advantages
agricultural revolution
Agricultural Revolution
  • Enclosure Movement
  • Fenced in land (the wealthy)
  • Sm. farms disappeared (poor peasants)
  • Lg. Plots: Experimented w/ new farming methods (influence of Sci. Rev.)
  • Seed Drill
agricultural revolution cont
Agricultural Revolution (cont.)

2. Crop Rotation

  • Crops replenished nutrients
  • Improved soil → more crops

3. Improved Livestock

  • Allowed only best animals to breed  ↑size & quality of farm animals

4. Effects:

  • More Food
  • Population ↑

Rotating Crops Yearly

That’s one big sheep!

great britain s advantages
Great Britain’s Advantages
  • What advantages did and/or could Britain specifically have had to foster an Industrial Revolution?

(Think about: Location! Location! Location!; social climate, political climate, what is needed to industrialize)

great britain s advantages16
Great Britain’s Advantages
  • Natural Resources
  • Favorable Geography
  • Favorable Climate for New Ideas
  • Banking System
  • Political Stability
1 natural resources
1. Natural Resources



Coal = Energy 4 Machines



= 4 Machines

Iron Ore = Machines, Tools, & Buildings

2 favorable geography
2. Favorable Geography
  • Harbors, lg. fleets
  • Trade

- Essential to growth

- wealthy class of ship-owners & merchants w/ $ to spend at home.

3 favorable climate 4 new ideas
3. Favorable Climate 4 New Ideas
  • Royal Society: exchange of scientific ideas & inventions
  • Lunar Society: scientific club (“Lunatics”)

- Met once a month @ full moon

3. Rewards for New Ideas:

- Business ppl invested

- Business investors were inventors

4 good banking system
4. Good Banking System
  • Most highly developed Europe
  • Loans: most imp. service of banks there

- Invest in new machinery

- Build new factories

- Expand operations

5 political stability
5. Political Stability
  • No wars on British Soil in 1700s
  • Century of peace
  • No worries about hostile armies
  • British govt favored econ growth
  • Why would an economy often decline during a war?
  • Why would an economy be stimulated during a war?
daily response
Daily Response
  • What do you believe is the most important invention ever created?

(** Excluding paper, electricity, & fire … )

industrial revolution
Industrial Revolution

The Role of Individuals





  • Seed Drill
  • Crop Rotation
jethro tull agriculture
Jethro Tull: Agriculture
  • Prob: Scattering seeds = wasteful (not all took root)
  • Solution: Seed Drill
  • Effects:

- Well-spaced rows

- Equal depths

- Larger yields

4. Think: “tuLL/driLL”)

viscount charles townshend agr
Viscount Charles Townshend: Agr.
  • Prob: Let land lie fallow every 2-3 yrs (**Why a prob??)
  • Solution: Crop Rotation
  • Effects

- Restored soil

- Nickname: “Turnip Townshend” (fave crop)


Textile Industry

  • Spinning Jenny
  • Spinning Mule
  • Power Loom
james hargreaves weaving
James Hargreaves: Weaving
  • Prob: Needed new spinning machine (weavers worked so quickly spinners couldn’t keep up)
  • Solution: Spinning Jenny (After his wife, Jenny)
  • Effects

- One worker could work 6-8 threads at a time

4. Think: “James & Jenny”

samuel crompton weaving
Samuel Crompton: Weaving
  • Prob: Flying Shuttle & Jenny were hand-operated
  • Solution: Spinning Mule(combined jenny & water frame)
  • Effects

- Made thread stronger, finer, & more even

- But…too lg & expensive for ppl to use at home … which gave rise to what??

“Mule”=offspring of horse & donkey

“Spinning Mule”=offspring, too!

edmund cartwright spinning
Edmund Cartwright: Spinning
  • Prob: Needed to speed up weaving
  • Solution: Power Loom (Run by water power)
  • Effects:

- Used in lg factories

- Weaving of cloth caught up w/ spinning of yarn

- Spinners & weavers worked so fast cotton growers couldn’t keep up!

Early Power Looms: Power comes from overhead shafts which are turned by a water wheel or a steam engine


Cotton Industry

  • Cotton Gin
eli whitney cotton
Eli Whitney: Cotton
  • Prob: Removing seeds form cotton: too much time
  • Solution: Cotton Gin
  • Effects:

- Picked & cleaned 10 times as much as before

- ↑in Am. Cotton production

-**Now: enough cotton to keep factories in Britain going


Engines & Travel

  • Steam Engine
  • McAdam Surface
  • Improved Engines
  • Railroads
james watt engine
James Watt: Engine
  • Prob: Machines & looms used waterpower … *What’s the drawback?
  • Solution: Steam Engine ( pump water from mines 3x faster)
  • Effect:

- Entrepreneurs

-Faster, less fuel

- 1st source of power that could be used anywhere, anytime (used coal … didn’t need to be next to river)

john mcadam
John McAdam:
  • Prob: British roads had poor drainage
  • Solution: “Macadam” surface: Built roadbeds w/ layer of lg stones for drainage

- Over bed: smooth layer of crushed rock

  • Effects:

- Not as muddy or dusty

- Heavy wagons could travel over in rainy weather w/o sinking axels into mud

richard trevithick engine
Richard Trevithick: Engine
  • Prob: needed smaller steam power engines
  • Solution: Engine: small & powerful
  • Effects:

- Could transport goods

- Later: RR lines

- Entrepreneurial spirit

george stephenson rrs
George Stephenson: RRs
  • Prob. : Needed RR lines to connect major cities (WHY?)
  • Solution: World’s 1st RR line

- “Rocket”: engine: hauled 13 tons, 24 mph

  • Effects:

- Liverpool-Manchester RR

- Others built RR’s all over GB

rr s effects cont
RR’s: Effects (cont)
  • Industrial growth: transport goods cheap & fast
  • Needed more iron & coal: growth in transportation ind’s (steamboats & RR’s)
  • New jobs: booming coal & iron industries
  • Boost to agriculture
  • New view of travel: now quick & cheap (ppl. worked in cities)
  • More sales more factories & machinery
daily response39
Daily Response
  • What is socialism?
  • Why do you think people wanted it? What conditions would prompt this idea?
industrialization social impacts
Industrialization: Social Impacts
  • New Factories
  • Spread of Industrialization
  • Growth of Population in Cities
  • New Social Classes

- Industrial Middle Class

- Industrial Working Class

  • Early Socialism

What are some effects of this transition?

new factories
New Factories
  • New labor system
  • Owners: work machines

- Regular hours/shifts

  • Work discipline

- Aim: “To make men into machines that cannot err”

- Detailed Regulations (fined/lost job if late, drunk; children: beaten

  • Successful: GB=1st & richest industrialized nation

How did this development change the family structure?

new factories42
New Factories

- What would probably happen to the present day firm that used the methods described to maintain control over its workers?

- What does this indicate about the need for govt. protection of workers?

How does this challenge Smith’s theory of the roles of govt.?

spread of industrialization
Spread of Industrialization


A few sober & industrious families of at least 5 children each, over the age of 8 years, are wanted at Cotton Factory in Whitestown. Widows with large families would do well to attend this notice.

  • Govt.’s encouraged it

- Training schools

- $ on roads, canals, RR’s

  • Spread to U.S.

-  in pop & workers

- Roads & canals, RR’s

- Factory labor (women, children)

growth of population in cities
Growth of Population in Cities
  • Stats

-1750: Euro=140 million

-1800: Euro=187 million

-1850: Euro=266 million

  • Factors

-  in death rates, diseases, & wars

-  in food supply

  • Exception: IRE: (famine)
  • Cities: RR’s facilitated
  • London= major city

Slum Neighborhood in London

population growth london slums
Population Growth: London Slums
  • How did the RR’s contribute to the pollution that existed in these neighborhoods?
  • Evaluate:
  • “In the long-run the industrial revolution was good for all classes of British society b/c it created so much new wealth in that nation.”
new social class industrial middle class
New Social Class: Industrial Middle Class
  • Bourgeoisie=middle class

- Now: town-dweller involved in industry, banking, & professions

  • Composition: ppl. who built factories, bought machines
  • Sought separation: from lower working classes

THINK: Why & how did growth of the bourgeoisie shift pol/econ power in Euro? Why didn’t the masses of factory workers have any effective pol. power? How could this contribute to civil unrest/new pol. system?

new social class industrial working class
New Social Class: Industrial Working Class
  • Wretched Working Conditions
  • 12-16 hr days, 6 days/wk, 1/2 hr for lunch & dinner
  • No secure employment, no min. wage
  • Hot, dirty, dangerous
  • Coal Mines
  • Cave-ins, explosions, gas fumes (“bad air”)
  • Cramped & damp deformed bodies, ruined lungs
  • Women & children: 2/3 cotton industry workforce

Child Coal Miner

industrial middle class cont
Industrial Middle Class (cont.)
  • Compare: Factory Acts in GB w/ laws that set working conditions, hrs, & wages for young ppl in US.
  • Do Am employers always follow these laws?
  • Would you consider working under conditions that you know are illegal?
  • Factory Act 1833
  • Min. working age=9
  • 9-13: 8 hr days
  • 13-18:12 hr days
  • Female Labor
  • Factory Acts: New Patterns
  • Men: earn $ outside home
  • Women: @ home; low $ jobs
early socialism
Early Socialism
  • Product of intellectuals
  • Beliefs
  • Equality of all ppl
  • Replace competition w/ cooperation in industry.
  • Robert Owen: Socialist
  • Cotton manufacturer
  • Natural goodness of humans in cooperative environment
  • Est’d it in sm. factory town  fighting w/in comm.
socialism cont
Socialism (cont.)
  • Freidrich Engels
  • Appalled by city’s slums
  • De Tocqueville
  • “Gentlemen, I believe that at this very hour we are sleeping on a volcano.”
  • What does this mean?
  • Communism is a movement based on the ideals of communal ownership of property and means of production
    • State takes care of everything
      • Job
      • Medical
      • Education
      • Food
      • Housing
      • Etc..
  • Is a branch of socialism
  • USSR and China enjoyed the biggest successes of being communist
    • It failed in the USSR because of cultural values.
      • Severe alcohol problem
      • Apathy rampant in Soviet Society
  • China has enjoyed success because of their cultural values
      • Confucianism
        • Hard work
        • Serving Government
        • Family Name
        • Etc..
  • In common usage capitalism refers to an economic system in which all or most of the means of production are privately owned and operated
    • Based on the Productivity of the Individual
      • No limit to your wealth
      • You decide your fate
      • Government not as involved
capitalism vs communism

private property

free enterprise


unequal distribution of wealth



Variety of Goods

31 flavors

the existence of markets (including the labor market)



State owns everything

No profits

Equal distribution of wealth

No competition

No markets for goods

Classless society

Limited freedom

No variety

“vanilla Ice Cream”

Society breeds apathy

State takes care of all basic human needs

Promotes stagnant thought

Capitalism Vs Communism
capitalism versus communism
Capitalism versus Communism
  • Communists Don’t Like Capitalist Societies
    • Exploitation of workers
      • Owners driven by profits
    • “The Rich Get Richer…and the Poorer become Poorer.”
communism versus capitalism
Communism versus Capitalism
  • Capitalists Don’t Like Communists
    • Restricts Freedoms
    • Avoids Competition
    • Others???


  • Good Source of Inventions
  • Another good timeline
  • Cotton times
  • The Industrial revolution, a timeline


  • Industrial Revolution Inventors
  • Short PowerPoint to Inventors and their Inventions
  • A Large good selection of Inventors
  • More Inventors
  • Once you have selected your inventor, you may also use a search engine to look for your specific information on your inventor or invention
  • These search engines include:
    • Google.com
    • Dogpile.com
    • Yahoo.com
    • Askjeeves.com
    • Historychannel.com