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NUCLEOTIDE MONOMER. H. 5. Pyrimidines (single ring bases) thymine cytosine uracil Purines (double-ring bases) adenine guanine. 1. 5C ribose/ deoxyribose sugar @ 1’ C , N-base covalently bonds @ 5’ C, phosphate bonds. DEHYDRATION. l inks them.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

NUCLEOTIDE MONOMER

H

5

Pyrimidines

(single ring bases)

thymine

cytosine

uracil

Purines

(double-ring bases)

adenine

guanine

1

5C ribose/deoxyribose sugar

@ 1’ C , N-base covalently bonds

@ 5’ C, phosphate bonds

slide2

DEHYDRATION

links them

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Udq7dX7jJMw

slide3

HYDROGEN BONDS

between bases

pyrimidine with purine

slide4

DESIGN & DIRECTION

The helices are

COMPLEMENTARY

reflecting the base-pair

rule

The helices are the

inverse of each other

ANTI-PARALLEL

read/replicated in

opposite directions

5’ to 3’

slide5

SEMICONSERVATIVE

REPLICATION

One strand from parent DNA conserved in each duplicate

slide6

UNTWISTING the HELIX

Cuts backbone to cope with over- or undercoiling of helix as replication fork moves

TOPOISOMERASE:

HELICASE:

Untwists helix; Breaks H-bonds between base pairs

DIRECTION OF REPLICATIONFORK

slide7

SEQUENCING

RNA primer into place; then nucleotides follow

DNA polymerase adds free nucleotides to the growing chain

RNA primer

bonds with help of primase

slide8

ENZYMES to BOND

Ligase binds the sugars and phosphates, completes the strand

DNA Polymerasecopies the code, binds the N-bases.

Can only add to the 3’ end of the nucleotide

slide9

DIRECTION MATTERS

Nucleotides added only by bonding a 5’ C (phosphate group) to a 3’C of sugar (not vice-versa)

‘wrong’ direction

Lagging strand

Follows replication fork

continuous construction

Leading strand

slide10

SOLUTION

Lagging strand is built in fragments – Okazaki fragments – which are pasted in in sections

http://www.wiley.com/college/pratt/0471393878/student/animations/dna_replication/index.html

http://www.courses.fas.harvard.edu/~biotext/animations/replication1.swf

slide11

ERRORS in REPLICATION

Point mutation a nucleotide substitution

Changes 1 amino acid in the polypeptide

Frameshift mutations insertion or deletion of nucleotides

Changes all amino acids ‘downstream’