Chapter 8 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 8

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  1. Chapter 8 Language and Thought

  2. Language & Conversation • Phoneme – basic sound unit of speech • Morpheme – Smallest unit of language that has meaning • Syntax – rules used to combine words into phrases and sentences • Semantics – rules governing the meaning of words and sentences • Pragmatics – social aspects of language

  3. Theories of Language Development • Behaviorist perspective – B.F. Skinner • Nativist perspective – Noam Chomsky • Language Acquisition Device

  4. Milestones of Language Development • Cooing – 1 – 5 mos. • Babbling – 4 – 18 mos. • First words – 10 – 13 mos. • Referential style – objects • Expressive style – pronouns and social words • Holophrases (One word sentences) – 12 – 18 mos. • Vocabulary spurt & telegraphic speech – 18 – 24 mos.

  5. Language and Young Children • Overextension – using a word too broadly • Underextension – using a word too narrowly • Overregularization – using grammatical rules too strictly • Child-directed speech/motherese/ parentese – used by adults & children when speaking to babies

  6. Language’s Influence on Thought • Whorfian hypothesis • Linguistic relativity – language influences thoughts

  7. Thinking • Cognition • Top-down processing • Bottom-up processing • Problem solving • Heuristics • Means-end analysis • Analogies • Barriers to problem solving • Mindlessness • Functional fixedness • Mental set • Creativity

  8. Decision Making • Heuristics • Availability • Representativeness • Anchoring & adjustment • Decision frames • Positive & negative framing