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DEVELOPING A DISASTER DEBRIS MANAGEMENT PLAN. Claude Denver and George Coyle DHS&EM Operations Section October 6, 2011. Debris Management Cycle. Getting Started. There are three activities that we recommend before starting the disaster debris management plan.

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    1. DEVELOPING A DISASTER DEBRIS MANAGEMENT PLAN Claude Denver and George Coyle DHS&EM Operations Section October 6, 2011

    2. Debris Management Cycle

    3. Getting Started • There are three activities that we recommend before starting the disaster debris management plan. • The first step is to understand the State’s and FEMA’s requirements for debris management eligibility. • A multi-agency team should be identified to create the plan. • Establish a schedule for updating the plan to ensure that it reflects current practices and policies.

    4. Pre-disaster Planning • Develop the Debris Management Plan (DMP). • Work with State and Federal officials in developing your plan. • Include the right people on your planning team. • Develop pre-incident contracts for disaster debris removal with local contractors.

    5. Components of a DMP • Pre-planning activities • Identify likely debris types and forecast amounts • List applicable agencies and regulations*: Local, state, and federal • Inventory current capacity for debris management • Identify equipment and administrative needs (including pre-negotiated contracts) • Develop communication plan • Create a disaster debris prevention strategy • Create a debris removal strategy beyond initial clearing • Pre-select temporary debris storage sites • Prioritize debris management options • Harmful materials identification and handling recommendations • Recycling options • Waste-to-energy options • Disposal options • Open burning options

    6. Identify Debris Types and Forecast Amounts • The types of materials that will make up the disaster debris stream should be assessed. • By disaster type (e.g., windstorm, earthquake, tsunami, etc.) • By region (Western Coast, Interior, North Slope, South-Central, Panhandle, etc.) • By level of urbanization (e.g., municipality, city, village, etc.) • FEMA and the USACE have HAZUS maps, GIS software, and debris prediction models that could be used.

    7. Typical Debris Streams for Different Types of Disasters

    8. List Applicable Federal, State, and Local Environmental Regulations • Once a disaster strikes, there will not be time to do extensive research. • Prior to the disaster, communities need to understand how all waste types must be managed according to federal, state, and local regulations

    9. Inventory Current Capacity for Debris Management • After the amount and type of debris are estimated, assess the region’s capacity to manage the debris. • Solid waste management facilities need to be inventoried • Contacts, locations, and directions for all solid waste facilities listed for quick reference. • Any other necessary service providers should also be compiled. • Evaluate all options, not just trucks, for moving debris to preferred facilities. • Consider additional waste management facilities through mutual aid agreements.

    10. Determine DebrisTracking Mechanisms • The EPA recommends that communities determine how debris can be tracked during clean-up. • Tracking information is important to determine: • the amount of capacity used and available at various debris management locations, • to pay debris haulers, and • to determine the total amount managed from the disaster. • The State and FEMA also have tracking requirements for reimbursement.

    11. Pre-select Debris Management Sites • Pre-select temporary sites that can be used for the storing, sorting, and processing of debris. • Identifying ample space to stage, store, and process debris can be a challenge. • Sites selected in the past have included disposal facilities, landfills/dumps, local parks, or closed industrial/military facilities. • These sites can be used to temporarily store debris before transferring it to another facility, or they can be used to process debris on site. • Conveniently located sites can reduce travel time when transferring debris to processing or management facilities and result in expedited debris clean-up. FEMA states 100 acres of land are needed to process one million cubic yards of debris. The figure above depicts an 100-acre debris management site for nonhazardous debris with a small area for hazardous waste brought in by mistake.

    12. General Environmental, Safety, and Logistical Considerations • Environmental monitoring. • Vegetative debris may require monitoring of groundwater, air, fires, etc. • Areas used to stage mixed, C&D, or hazardous wastes may need more extensive monitoring • Removal of debris from the site in a timely manner. • Putrescible, mixed, harmful, and hazardous wastes should not be stored for extended periods of time. • These types of debris should be removed daily or as soon as practical to prevent odors, vectors, human health hazards, and/or environmental releases. • Limiting site access to ensure that the site is secure. • Evaluating traffic logistics on and around the storage site. • Minimizing noise disruptions to acceptable hours. • Hazardous waste will cause many more considerations….

    13. Develop a Communication Plan • Develop a communication plan to communicate effectively with the debris management team, and all other entities, including the general public regarding the debris removal process. • The chain-of-command, as well as how decisions will be communicated through the chain, need to be clearly articulated. • Hold frequent meetings after the disaster to communicate events and problems, as well as solutions. • Establish a reliable method to communicate with police, health officials, and other emergency responders to ensure debris is collected in a manner protective of public safety. • Establish a communication strategy with major industrial and commercial enterprises in the area that may generate large amounts of wastes. • All communication should be timely, consistent, updated, and use language that is not overly technical.

    14. Communicating with the Public • Informing the public about debris management before disaster strikes should make dealing with the aftermath easier. • Residents typically want debris to be removed as quickly as possible, and may resort to illegal burning, dumping, and other improper management methods. • Providing public education before and after the disaster can curb this response. • Inform the community when, where, and how debris collection will commence, when normal collection is likely to resume, and provide special instructions for reporting and separating disaster debris at the curb • Use a combination of radio/television announcements, flyers, websites, telephone, etc. to be effective in getting the message out.

    15. A Quick Public Message Could Be.. PUBLIC MESSAGE “Don’t “CHEAT” The Environment” “C “ - Construction and Demolition, C&D “H “ - Household Hazardous Waste “E” - Electronic Waste “A” - Appliances, (White Goods) “T” - Trees or Vegetative Debris Curbside Segregation is Most Efficient

    16. Create a Disaster Debris Prevention Strategy • Disaster debris prevention should be considered in a disaster debris management plan to reduce the generation of debris. • Include an education outreach program to educate the public on how they may decrease the amount of damage that their property might suffer in a natural disaster. • Hazard Mitigation Plans discuss preventative measures aimed at reducing the generation of disaster debris.

    17. CREATE A DEBRIS REMOVAL STRATEGY • Begin debris removal as soon as it is safe for personnel to be out in the community. • The debris removal strategy should discuss how each type of debris should be segregated (where applicable), collected, and managed. • Ensuring that the debris is removed in a timely fashion is important to protect the safety of the community and to return the community back to normal. • The first step should be the clearing of roadways and ensuring that emergency vehicles can travel effectively.

    18. Emergency Debris Clearance Prioritize and clear access for: • Police, Fire, and emergency medical responders and vehicles • Water supply, power service, sanitary sewer repairs • Operating Emergency Shelters • Restoring Communication • Distribution of water, ice, & food to victims • Ensure political and socioeconomic balance

    19. Include Methods for Implementing the Strategy • Following the initial clearing, there should be a plan for collection priorities. • Debris that may pose an immediate threat to human health and the environment should be a first priority in collection. • Following that, the strategy should discuss materials that are priorities for recycling or reuse. • While recycling should be pursued to the extent possible, it is likely that many materials will be disposed. • “Don’t Make it More Complicated than it is” - whenever possible load disaster debris one time and deliver it to thefinaldisposal site. Often that won’t be the most efficient solution.

    20. HARMFUL MATERIALS IDENTIFICATION AND HANDLING • Examples of materials handled as hazardous wastes include: • automotive/marine batteries, • pesticide containers, • explosives, • automotive oils, fuels and fluids, • solvents, paint thinners and strippers and • compressed gas containers. • Separate these materials into appropriate categories.

    21. These Types of Debris will Require Special Handling and Management • Household Hazardous Waste (HHW) • Household items that display one or more of the following characteristics – ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. • Asbestos-containing material (ACM) • such as asbestos pipe wrap, siding, ceiling tiles, and other building materials, typically found in older buildings. • PCBs • found in older (pre-1979) transformers attached to downed utility poles. • Storage tanks • found both above ground and underground, containing petroleum or hazardous substances that, if released, could pose significant risk to health, safety, and the environment. • White Goods • Putrid food must be carefully handled during removal, collection and disposal as garbage. • Refrigerants such as freon must be reclaimed for recycling by certified technicians. • Some metal units are suitable for recycling. • Electronic Waste • include televisions, desktop and laptop computers, computer attachments, stereo equipment, and cell phones may contain up to 4 lbs of heavy metals (e.g., lead, chromium, cadmium, mercury, beryllium, nickel, or zinc). • Firearms and ammunition

    22. RECYCLING OPTIONS • Include a strategy for reuse, recycling, and mulching or composting. • Recycling and reuse will cut costs, and provide a valuable material resource. • Set priorities for reusing and recycling disaster debris materials. • Identify re-use options in advance. A list of recycling centers statewide can be found on the State of Alaska DEC – Solid Waste Website at:

    23. What can be Recycled? • Building materials, such as brick, blocks, concrete, lumber, asphalt tiles • Road and Bridge materials, asphalt pavement, concrete, and steel • Vegetative debris (or green waste) • Sediment, sand, silt, or soils, unless contaminated. • Decaying or rotting wastes (including animal carcasses), such as fruits, vegetables, meats, dairy products can be composted, rendered, etc. • Treated wood, such as wooden utility poles, other lumber that may be chemically-treated • Automobiles and Boats, may be recycled. • White goods (household appliances) stoves, refrigerators, washers and dryers, and hot water heaters • Electronics waste, televisions, desktop and laptop computers, stereo equipment, and cell phones

    24. WASTE-TO-ENERGY OPTIONS • Natural disasters can create large amounts of vegetative debris that could be used as a fuel or energy source. • Most of this material is left to decay, burned in place or hauled to landfills. • Using biomass to create energy instead of disposing it has both environmental and economic benefits. • Saves landfill capacity • Reduces air emissions • Provides a source of heating fuel for residents • Promotes a good image to the public

    25. REDUCTION OPTIONS • If not recycling, Debris Management Plans should evaluate methods to reduce debris prior to disposal. • There are two main types of reduction methods: • Incineration - it has up to a 95 percent reduction rate. • Chipping/Grinding/Shredding –The reduction rate could be up to 75%.

    26. A Typical Debris Reduction Site Metals Construction & Demolition (C&D) Debris C&D Small Trucks Mixed Vegetative Debris Tower Clean Vegetative Debris Mulch HTW • Burn Pits Tub Grinders Ash Pit Air Curtain Burners

    27. OPEN BURNING Burner • Open burning includes both burning debris in an open pit and burning debris in an air curtain incinerator (ACI). • Air Curtain Burners do not burn anything. They control the results of something burning. • All open burning should be conducted in accordance with state regulations. • Burn only clean vegetative material • No haz mat, asbestos, pressure treated wood, etc. Air Curtain “Box” Burn area Wood Debris

    28. DISPOSAL OPTIONS • The most cost-efficient measure is usually to make use of the applicant’s own or normally utilized landfills, if space is available. • Most disaster debris is not hazardous and can be disposed, as appropriate, in a C&D landfill, MSW landfill, or nonhazardous solid waste combustor regulated by a state agency. • Hazardous or Asbestos-Containing material will need special disposal. • Mixed debris typically includes a mixture of all types of debris will need special attention.

    29. Debris Monitoring • Debris monitoring throughout the debris management program. • Account for debris during the removal, transport, and disposal process beginning with the “load ticket” at the point of origin. • Monitoring at disposal facilities ensures: • unscrupulous contractors or residents are not allowed to dispose debris not suitable for the landfill • contamination from hazardous wastes and other debris of concern does not occur. • contractor safety on the site. • accurate and validated loads are deposited. • Thus, when a truck enters the staging or disposal areas, spotters check the load for volume and contaminants not allowed at that site.

    30. State of Alaska Debris Management Plan • The State of Alaska has recently completed the State of Alaska Debris Management Plan, dated August 2009. • The plan includes estimated quantities of debris by region for flood, earthquake, and tsunami events. August 2009

    31. FEMA Debris Guidance • FEMA guidance is available that could help in developing your debris management plan: • FEMA 325 – Debris Management Guide • FEMA 9580 series Debris Operations Job Aids and Fact Sheets • FEMA E 202 – Debris Management Course

    32. Other Federal Debris Guidance • Other federal guidance on debris management is available from: • USACE • USEPA • NOAA/USCG • USDA/NRCS

    33. Questions??? State Emergency Coordination Center (800) 478-2337 (24 hours) Claude E. Denver or George Coyle(907) 428-7100