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  1. Debris Management Sites NCEMA Spring Conference 2014 Deb Aja – NCDENR Solid Waste Section

  2. How We Got Started • Since Hurricanes Fran (1996) and Floyd (1999), NC has grown to be one of the best states for Hurricane awareness, planning and response. • Gov. Hunt charged state officials to better organize and be prepared for these type events. • Executive Order 104 -1996. Disaster Recovery Task Force, Center, and Action Team. • Implementation of 22 new state programs (hog lagoons, flood mapping, etc.)

  3. Solid Waste Section Involvement • Lead state agency on management of solid waste -storm generated debris • Charged with assisting local governments in management of debris in a manner to meet FEMA Public Assistance reimbursement • Participated in SART – Proper management of animal mortality • Development of Temporary Disaster Debris Staging Sites program and Debris Management guidance • Require Disaster Planning and Response measures in LG Solid Waste Management Plans

  4. NCDENR Solid Waste Section – Field Operations Branch • Compliance and Technical Assistance Duties • All FOB staff are State Emergency Response Team (SERT)members – Infrastructure Support • NIMS and other EM training • FOB staff maintain personal COOP plans • Regular communication with Local Governments/Facilities for disaster readiness • Availability to work anywhere, anytime statewide

  5. Field Operations Branch

  6. Debris Management Options Demolition Waste Existing Landfills Transfer Facilities Vegetative Waste Existing Mulching operations or Landfills Preparing for the scenario where existing facilities are not accessible or operational… Temporary Disaster Debris Staging Sites

  7. Most counties will not have enough permitted facilities to handle the debris generated by a disaster.

  8. What is a Temporary Disaster Debris Staging Site? Preapprovedarea designated to provide for the temporary storage and/or the initial processing of disaster generated vegetative and/or demolition debris.

  9. Temporary Disaster Debris Staging Sites • Sites are evaluated to meet FEMA reimbursement standards. • All sites go through process of evaluation to comply with environmental rules and Historic Preservation/Natural Heritage. • Over the last decade, FOB staff have evaluated over 700 debris sites for use statewide. • Conditionally approved and require activation prior to use (only FL maintains a similar database). • 6 months operations window to remove debris (Requires re-inspect to close out). • Prior to Irene, ~350 sites available for use.

  10. Benefits of Preparedness • Having pre-staged debris sites, contracts, procedures in place is critical to the recovery process. • A key component of reimbursement. • Funding mechanism is shifts from 100% Federally paid for designated timeframe post landfall, then reduced. • Movement of debris is critical to re-establish of vital services (electricity, etc) • Reduction of public safety risk and environmental impact due to waste streams remaining in place.

  11. Recent Disaster Events Tornadoes – Central and East 2011 Hurricane Irene – East 2011 Tornado – Cherokee County 2012 Winter Weather - Central and East 2014

  12. April 2011 Tornadoes • 18 Counties impacted • 16 activated debris storage sites ( 12 new) • ~7000 homes (500+ destroyed) – ~5000 in Wake County alone • Over 100 business (~25 destroyed) • Vegetative and Demolition Waste, Metals, HHW • EO 88 and HB268 – relaxed State rules on open burning and on-site burial. Also charged DOT with to assist with removal of waste from private property • Placed burden on local government as it conflicted with FEMA reimbursement policies.

  13. Hurricane Irene • Irene made landfall as CAT 1 near Cape Lookout on 8/27/11 • 34 counties impacted • 84 activated Debris sites (over 60 new) • Due to configuration of the storm, NE quad was flooding /storm surge related, wind to west of eye • Storm surge caused major damage along “inner banks” • Concentrated mostly between the western eye wall and western most bands • EO 105 – Required NCDOT & DENR to assistance in debris removal from private property

  14. Hurricane Irene • Between April tornadoes and Irene, the market for mulch and boiler fuel in Eastern NC became overwhelmed. • Several debris sites stored processed materials for extended period. • Concerns of increase pile heating and spontaneous combustion. • At least 2 sites caught fire.

  15. Cherokee County 2012 Tornado • Localized impacts - Murphy area • Vegetative and demolition debris generated • Business and residential damage, roads blocked • 4 activated Debris sites (1 new) • 1 exclusively by NC DOT for vegetative debris • Demolition waste was containerized at source and delivered to an out-of-state landfill

  16. Winter Weather March 6, 2014

  17. Lessons Learned • We are never fully prepared – Most new debris sites were in counties that did not have sites set up or who already had sites just in the wrong locations • Standard procedure sometimes goes out the window • State / Local cooperation • Tornadoes can happen in all areas of NC • Small storms produce large amounts of debris • Natural Disasters don’t discriminate →Urban vs. Rural

  18. Temporary Disaster Debris Staging Sites Waste Management Options

  19. Debris Reduction (vegetative) • Chipping/Grinding →Typically Tub Grinders →4:1 reduction (75% reduction)

  20. Debris Reduction (vegetative) Burning (requires permitting) →Air curtain pit incineration →20:1 reduction (95% reduction) → Requires management of ash

  21. Storage of Demolition Wastes

  22. Demolition and Vegetative Waste

  23. Other Wastes… • No household garbage, hazardous wastes, medical wastes, or items banned from disposal can be accepted at any temporary staging site • All refrigerators / freezers should be inspected by operator prior to acceptance

  24. Temporary Disaster Debris Staging Sites Establishing New Sites

  25. Advance Planning & Approval Process READY TO ACTIVATE - CONTACT SOLID WASTE SECTION

  26. Typical Procedure …. • County/City/Contractor/Landowner will complete the “Site Evaluation Sheet” available on our portal. • It is then sent to the Environmental Senior Specialist for the area in which the site is proposed. • After receiving the form, the Environmental Senior Specialist will conduct a site visit.

  27. Even better…. Team approach very successful when coordinating with EM staff, DOT, other agencies.

  28. Site Evaluation Form - Mapping

  29. Size? • Should be based on the expected volume at each location (using the FEMA calculation guidance). The Public Assistance Debris Estimating Field Guide is available on portal site. • Larger sites mean fewer sites to operate and close. However, smaller, strategically placed sites are advantageous. • Smaller sites require more coordination and staffing, but will allow for quicker debris clearing in remote areas. • Smaller sites are typically used for vegetative debris storage.

  30. Number of Sites… • Since the location of damage can not be predicted several sites should be selected and approved across the county. • This will allow staging options if access problems and heavy localized damage occurs. • Ideally each county would have at least 4 sites conditionally approved and ready to activate.

  31. Site Selection - Siting Criteria • Debris sites have siting criteria setbacks that must be met for approval based on waste type and management option (grinding, air curtain burner, etc.) • Must pass review by Natural Heritage Program and State Historic Preservation Office (often can take 2-3 weeks to obtain approval) • Allow time to conduct environmental studies and clearly define restoration goals.

  32. Site Selection - Siting Requirements • 100 feet • Surface Waters/Waters of the State • Property Boundaries • Buildings & Structures • Septic Systems • Vegetative Waste to potable water supply wells • 250 feet • Demolition waste to potable water supply wells • 300 feet • Tub Grinders to structures or locations where property damage and/or personal injury could occur due to airborne debris, vibration, etc.

  33. Sites should be located outside of identifiable or known floodplain and flood prone areas • Consult the Flood Insurance Rate Map for the location in your county to verify these areas. Would this make a good site?

  34. Access • Sites should provide for easy access from main roads. • Should not create traffic problems on local streets. • Should avoid populated areas if possible. • Should not create other problems (dust, noise, or traffic issues) to nearby residents. • Consider safety issues such as power lines and underground utilities.

  35. Advice to Local Government Environmental Impact • Develop baseline data for each site whenever possible to include location of any potential problems, such as: • History of previous uses of the property. • Location of closest residences. • Presence and condition of potable wells and water quality. • Residents with health problems in the area. • Photographs of the site for closure purposes. • Soil samples when possible.

  36. Activation, Operation, Site Closure

  37. Site Activation • BEFORE USING THE SITE Contact Environmental Senior Specialist to have the site ACTIVATED. • A site will only be activated in the event of an emergency. Note- this does not have to be a “declared” emergency.

  38. Operations • Sites should be operated by the county / city / township, NCDOT or contract operators. • It should be clear who is responsible for the operation and closure of the site from the beginning. • Private contractors operating temporary storm debris sites should have written contracts prepared by local government to ensure proper operation and closure.

  39. Operations • Prior to use, the site buffers should be flagged. • All temporary sites must be staffed during hours of operation to prevent unauthorized use or dumping. • Segregate waste prior to delivery to site.

  40. What is the problem here?

  41. Operations - Fire Prevention • Keep piles small – maintain wind rows 5-6 high and 8-10 feet wide to allow volatile gases to escape. • Monitor waste piles and turn when temperatures reach 160°F. • Separate piles with travel lanes spaced for fire fighting equipment. • Monitor incoming wastes for “hot loads”.

  42. Site Closure: Material Removal • All demolition debris removed to a permitted solid waste management facility. • All processed and unprocessed vegetative material, and inert debris should be removed to a properly permitted solid waste management facility or other approved locations (e.g. fuel delivered to a boiler). • Tires must be disposed of at a scrap tire processing/ disposal facility. • White goods and other scrap metal are separated and recycled.

  43. Active Site

  44. Same site as previous slide, restored.

  45. Debris Management Training • Field Operations Branch offers Debris Management Training every 3 years with emphasis on Debris Site staging, Air Quality Rules, and basic debris planning. • One-on-one training available upon request.

  46. For more information or planning assistance…

  47. For more information or planning assistance…

  48. Thank You!Deb