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THE FIVE KINGDOMS Introduction to Bacteria 2 TYPES OF BACTERIA: Bacteria -Get food from an outside source Blue-green Bacteria -Make their own food BACTERIA Bacteria - small one celled monerans Bacteria like a warm, dark, and moist environment They are found almost everywhere:

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Introduction to Bacteria

  • 2 TYPES OF BACTERIA:
    • Bacteria
      • -Get food from an outside source
    • Blue-green Bacteria
      • -Make their own food
slide3

BACTERIA

  • Bacteria -small one celled monerans
  • Bacteria like a warm, dark, and moist environment

They are found almost everywhere:

  • -water -air
  • -soil -food
  • -skin -inside the body
  • -on most objects
slide4

3 Shapes of Bacteria

Bacteria are classified by shape into 3 groups:

Spiral:

spirilla

rod-shaped:bacilli, bacillus

Round:

cocci

slide5

Bacillus anthracis – (bacillus)

Neisseria meningitidis (coccus)

Leptospira interrogans – (spirilla)

3 Shapes of Bacteria

slide6

7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell

  • Capsule
  • Cell wall
  • Ribosomes
  • Nucleoid
  • Flagella
  • Pilli
  • Cytoplasm
slide7

7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell

Capsule

  • keeps the cell from drying out and helps it stick to food or other cells
slide8

7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell

Cell wall

  • Thick outer covering that maintains the overall shape of the bacterial cell
slide9

7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell

Ribosomes

  • cell part where proteins are made
  • Ribosomes give the cytoplasm of bacteria a granular appearance in electron micrographs
slide10

7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell

Nucleoid

  • a ring made up of DNA
slide11

7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell

Flagella

  • a whip-like tail that some bacteria have for locomotion
slide13

7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell

Pilli

  • hollow hair-like structures made of protein
  • allows bacteria to attach to other cells.
  • Pilli-singular
  • Pillus-plural
slide14

7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell

Cytoplasm

  • clear jelly-like material that makes up most of the cell
slide15

Reproduction of Bacteria

  • Binary Fission-the process of one organism dividing into two organisms
  • Fission is a type of asexual reproduction
  • Asexual reproduction-reproduction of a living thing from only one parent

How?...

The one main (circular) chromosome makes a copy of itself

Then it divides into two

slide16

Reproduction of Bacteria

BINARY FISSION

Completed

Bacteria dividing

slide17

Reproduction of Bacteria

  • The time of reproduction depends on how desirable the conditions are
  • Bacteria can rapidly reproduce themselves in warm, dark, and moist conditions
  • Some can reproduce every 20 minutes
        • (one bacteria could be an ancestor to one million bacteria in six hours)
slide18

Bacterial Cell & Nucleiod DNA Ring

DNA replication

Cell wall synthesis

Binary Fission

Cell separation

slide19

Bacteria Survival

  • Endospore-
  • a thick celled structure that forms inside
  • the cell
  • they are the major cause of food poisoning
  • allows the bacteria to survive for many years
  • they can withstand boiling, freezing, and extremely dry conditions
  • it encloses all the nuclear materials
  • and some cytoplasm
slide20

Bacteria Survival

Bacillus subtilis

Endospore-the black section in the middle

  • highly resistant structures
  • can withstand radiation, UV light, and boiling at 120oC for 15 minutes.
slide21

Bacteria Survival – Food sources

  • parasites–bacteria that feed on living things
  • saprophytes–use dead materials for food (exclusively)
  • decomposers –get food from breaking down dead matter into simple chemicals
      • important- because they send minerals and other materials back into the soil so other organisms can use them
slide22

Harmful Bacteria

  • some bacteria cause diseases
  • Animals can pass diseases to humans
  • Communicable Disease –
  • Disease passed from one organism to another
  • This can happen in several ways:
  • Air
  • Touching clothing, food, silverware, or toothbrush
  • Drinking water that contains bacteria
slide23

Harmful Bacteria

Human tooth with accumulation of bacterial plaque (smooth areas) and calcified tartar (rough areas)

slide24

Helpful Bacteria

  • Decomposers help recycle nutrients into the soil for other organisms to grow
  • Bacteria grow in the stomach of a cow to break down grass and hay
  • Most are used to make antibiotics
  • Some bacteria help make insulin
  • Used to make industrial chemicals
slide25

Helpful Bacteria

E.coli on small intestines

slide26

Helpful Bacteria

  • Used to treat sewage
    • Organic waste is consumed by the bacteria, used as nutrients by the bacteria, and is no longer present to produce odors, sludge, pollution, or unsightly mess.
  • foods like yogurt, cottage & Swiss cheese, sour cream, buttermilk are made from bacteria that grows in milk
slide27

Controlling Bacteria

3 ways to control bacteria:

1) Canning-the process of sealing food in airtight cans or jars after killing bacteria

  • endospores are killed during this process

2) Pasteurization-process of heating milk to kill harmful bacteria

3) Dehydration-removing water from food

  • Bacteria can’t grow when H2O is removed
  • example: uncooked noodles & cold cereal
slide28

Controlling Bacteria

Antiseptic vs. Disinfectants

Antiseptic- chemicals that kill bacteria on living things

  • means – “against infection”

Examples: iodine, hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, soap, mouthwash

Disinfectants- stronger chemicals that destroy bacteria on objects or nonliving things

slide29

BLUE-GREEN BACTERIA

Autotrophs – make their own food through photosynthesis

  • larger than most bacterial cells
  • commonly grow on water and surfaces that stay wet…such as rivers, creeks and dams
  • Some live in salt water, snow, and acid water of hot springs
  • food source for animals that live in the water
slide30

BLUE-GREEN BACTERIA

  • can be toxic to humans and animals

Blooms- occur when the bacteria multiplies in great numbers and form scum on the top of the water

slide32

Bacteria Survival

  • Endospore-
  • a thick celled structure that forms inside
  • the cell
  • it encloses all the nuclear materials
  • and some cytoplasm
  • They can withstand boiling, freezing, and extremely dry conditions
  • Allows the bacteria to survive for many years
slide33

Bacteria Survival – Food sources

  • parasites–bacteria that feed on living things
  • saprophytes–use dead materials for food
  • decomposers –get food from breaking down dead matter into simple chemicals
      • important- because they send minerals and other materials back into the soil so other organisms can use them
slide34

Harmful Bacteria

  • some bacteria cause diseases
  • Animals can pass diseases to humans
  • Communicable Disease –
  • Disease passed from one organism to another
  • This can happen in several ways:
  • Air
  • Touching clothing, food, silverware, or toothbrush
  • Drinking water that contains bacteria
slide35

Harmful Bacteria

Human tooth with accumulation of bacterial plaque (smooth areas) and calcified tartar (rough areas)

slide36

Helpful Bacteria

  • Decomposers help recycle nutrients into the soil for other organisms to grow
  • Bacteria grow in the stomach of a cow to break down grass and hay
  • Most are sued to make antibiotics
  • Some bacteria help make insulin
  • Used to make industrial chemicals
slide37

Helpful Bacteria

E.coli on small intestines

slide39

BLUE-GREEN BACTERIA

  • Make their own food through photosynthesis
  • Bigger than most bacterial cells
  • Commonly grow on water and surfaces that stay wet…such as rivers, creeks and dams
slide40

BLUE-GREEN BACTERIA

  • It can be toxic to humans and animals
  • Blooms- occur when the bacteria multiplies in great numbers and form scum on the top of the water
slide47

Strep animation

http://www.hybridmedicalanimation.com/pages/jjani_qt/strep_pneumo_qt.html

Ecoli movement animatoin

http://www.hybridmedicalanimation.com/pages/jjani_qt/ecoli_qt.html

slide48

Ecoli movement animatoin

http://www.hybridmedicalanimation.com/pages/jjani_qt/ecoli_qt.html

slide49

HIV movie

http://www-micro.msb.le.ac.uk/Video/HIV.mov