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3. Data Resource Management. Learning Objectives. 3. Explain the importance of implementing data resource management processes and technologies in an organization. Understand the advantages of a database management approach to managing the data resources of a business.

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives

3

  • Explain the importance of implementing data resource management processes and technologies in an organization.
  • Understand the advantages of a database management approach to managing the data resources of a business.
slide3
Learning Objectives (continued)

3

  • Explain how database management software helps business professionals and supports the operations and management of a business.
  • Illustrate each of the following concepts:
    • Major types of databases
    • Data warehouses and data mining
    • Logical data elements
    • Fundamental database structures
    • Database access methods
    • Database development
section i
Section I

3

  • Managing Data Resources
data resource management5
Data Resource Management

3

  • A managerial activity
  • Applies information systems technology to managing data resources to meet needs of business stakeholders.
foundation data concepts
Foundation Data Concepts

3

  • Logical Data Elements
slide7
3

Foundation Data Concepts (continued)

  • Levels of data
    • Character
      • Single alphabetical, numeric, or other symbol
    • Field
      • Groupings of characters
      • Represents an attribute of some entity
foundation data concepts continued
Foundation Data Concepts (continued)

3

  • Records
    • Related fields of data
    • Collection of attributes that describe an entity
    • Fixed-length or variable-length
slide9
3

Foundation Data Concepts (continued)

  • Files (table)
    • A group of related records
    • Classified by
      • Primary use
      • Type of data
      • permanence
slide10
3

Foundation Data Concepts (continued)

  • Database
    • Integrated collection of logically related data elements
    • Consolidates records into a common pool of data elements
    • Data is independent of the application program using them and type of storage device
types of databases
Types of Databases

3

  • Operational
    • Supports business processes and operations
    • Also called subject-area databases, transaction databases, and production databases
types of databases continued
Types of Databases (continued)

3

  • Distributed
    • Replicated and distributed copies or parts of databases on network servers at a variety of sites.
    • Done to improve database performance and security
slide13
Types of Databases (continued)

3

  • External
    • Available for a fee from commercial sources or with or without charge on the Internet or World Wide Web
  • Hypermedia
    • Hyperlinked pages of multimedia
data warehouses and data mining
Data Warehouses and Data Mining

3

  • Data warehouse
    • Stores data extracted from operational, external, or other databases of an organization
    • Central source of “structured” data
    • May be subdivided into data marts
data warehouses and data mining continued
Data Warehouses and Data Mining (continued)

3

  • Data mining
    • A major use of data warehouse databases
    • Data is analyzed to reveal hidden correlations, patterns, and trends
database management approach
Database Management Approach

3

  • Consolidates data records and objects into databases that can be accessed by many different application programs
database management approach continued
Database Management Approach (continued)

3

  • Database Management System
    • Software interface between users and databases
    • Controls creation, maintenance, and use of the database
slide18
3

Database Management Approach (continued)

slide19
3

Database Management Approach (continued)

  • Database Interrogation
    • Query
      • Supports ad hoc requests
      • Tells the software how you want to organize the data
      • SQL queries
      • Graphical (GUI) & natural queries
slide20
3

Database Management Approach (continued)

    • Report Generator
      • Turns results of query into a useable report
  • Database Maintenance
    • Updating and correcting data
slide21
3

Database Management Approach (continued)

  • Application Development
    • Data manipulation language
    • Data entry screens, forms, reports, or web pages
implementing data resource management
Implementing Data Resource Management

3

  • Database Administration
    • Develop and maintain the data dictionary
    • Design and monitor performance of databases
    • Enforce database use and security standards
implementing data resource management continued
Implementing Data Resource Management (continued)

3

  • Data Planning
    • Corporate planning and analysis function
    • Developing the overall data architecture
slide24
Implementing Data Resource Management (continued)

3

  • Data Administration
    • Standardize collection, storage, and dissemination of data to end users
    • Focused on supporting business processes and strategic business objectives
    • May include developing policy and setting standards
slide25
Implementing Data Resource Management (continued)

3

  • Challenges
    • Technologically complex
    • Vast amounts of data
    • Vulnerability to fraud, errors, and failures
section ii
Section II

3

  • Technical Foundations of Database Management
database structures
Database Structures

3

  • Hierarchical
    • Treelike
    • One-to-many relationship
    • Used for structured, routine types of transaction processing
database structures continued
Database Structures (continued)

3

  • Network
    • More complex
    • Many-to-many relationship
    • More flexible but doesn’t support ad hoc requests well
slide29
Database Structures (continued)

3

  • Relational
    • Data elements stored in simple tables
    • Can link data elements from various tables
    • Very supportive of ad hoc requests but slower at processing large amounts of data than hierarchical or network models
slide30
Database Structures (continued)

3

  • Multi-Dimensional
    • A variation of the relational model
    • Cubes of data and cubes within cubes
    • Popular for online analytical processing (OLAP) applications
slide32
Database Structures (continued)

3

  • Object-oriented
    • Key technology of multimedia web-based applications
    • Good for complex, high-volume applications
accessing databases
Accessing Databases

3

  • Key fields (primary key)
    • A field unique to each record so it can be distinguished from all other records in a table
accessing databases continued
Accessing Databases (continued)

3

  • Sequential access
    • Data is stored and accessed in a sequence according to a key field
    • Good for periodic processing of a large volume of data, but updating with new transactions can be troublesome
slide36
Accessing Databases (continued)

3

  • Direct access
    • Methods
      • Key transformation
      • Index
      • Indexed sequential access
database development
Database Development

3

  • Data dictionary
    • Directory containing metadata (data about data)
      • Structure
      • Data elements
      • Interrelationships
      • Information regarding access and use
      • Maintenance & security issues
database development continued
Database Development (continued)

3

  • Data Planning & Database Design
    • Planning & Design Process
      • Enterprise model
      • Entity relationship diagrams (ERDs)
      • Data modeling
        • Develop logical framework for the physical design
discussion questions
Discussion Questions

3

  • How should an e-business enterprise store, access, and distribute data & information about their internal operations & external environment?
  • What roles do database management, data administration, and data planning play in managing data as a business resource?
discussion questions continued
Discussion Questions (continued)

3

  • What are the advantages of a database management approach to organizing, accessing, and managing an organization’s data resources?
  • What is the role of a database management system in an e-business information system?
slide41
Discussion Questions (continued)

3

  • Databases of information about a firm’s internal operations were formerly the only databases that were considered to be important to a business. What other kinds of databases are important for a business today?
  • What are the benefits and limitations of the relational database model for business applications?
slide42
Discussion Questions (continued)

3

  • Why is the object-oriented database model gaining acceptance for developing applications and managing the hypermedia databases at business websites?
  • How have the Internet, intranets, extranets, and the World Wide Web affected the types and uses of data resources available to business end users?
references
References

3

  • James A. O'Brien; George M. Marakas. Management Information Systems: Managing Information Technology in the Business Enterprise 6th Ed., Boston: McGraw-Hill/ Irwin,2004
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