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Carbon-Based Molecules Part 1. Biochemistry. Objectives. SWBAT describe the bonding properties of carbon atoms. SWBAT compare carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Starter.

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Objectives
Objectives

  • SWBAT describe the bonding properties of carbon atoms.

  • SWBAT compare carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.


Starter
Starter

  • We have talked about carbon based molecules in other units. I want you to take a couple of minutes and make a list of the carbon based compounds we have touched on in this class or you have heard about in other places.

    • You may work in groups.


Vocabulary for unit 2 3 p 44
Vocabulary for Unit 2.3 (P. 44)

  • Monomer

  • Polymer

  • Carbohydrate

  • Monosaccharide

  • Polysaccharide

  • Starch

  • Cellulose

  • glycogen

  • Lipid

  • Fatty acid

  • Protein

  • Amino acid

  • Nucleic acid


Carbon building blocks of life
Carbon: Building Blocks of Life

  • Carbon atoms are the basis of most molecules making up living things.

    • They form the structure of living things.

    • Carry out most of the processes that keep organisms alive.

    • Carbon atoms have special bonding properties, due to its atomic structure, which are unique among elements.


Carbon building blocks of life1
Carbon: Building Blocks of Life

  • Carbon atom has four unpaired electrons in its outer energy level – allowing it to form covalent bonds with up to four other atoms (including other carbon atoms).


Carbon building blocks of life2
Carbon: Building Blocks of Life

  • Because Carbon can form four other covalent bonds, it can form large molecules (long chains and rings).


Hydrocarbons are classified based on how many carbons strung together
Hydrocarbons are classified based on how many carbons strung together

How Cleanly a hydrocarbon burns is based on the length of the carbon chain. Fewer carbons equals cleaner burning.


Quick question
Quick Question together

  • Why is methane considered clean burning?

  • When it burns, what does it produce?


Carbon chains and rings
Carbon Chains and Rings together

  • Carbon-based molecules have 3 fundamental structures (creating a lot of flexibility):

    • Straight chains (Pentene)

    • Branched chains (Iso-butane)


Carbon chains and rings1
Carbon Chains and Rings together

  • Rings (Vanillin and Hexane ring)

  • To reiterate, the bonding flexibility is due to the carbon’s ability to enter into up to 4 covalent bonds at the same time – forming large molecules


  • Links in a chain
    Links in a chain together

    • Large carbon molecules are made out of many smaller ones linked together.


    Links are called monomers the chains are polymers
    Links are called monomers, the chains are polymers. together

    • Each link, a smaller molecule, is known as a monomer (mono means one).

    • Monomers linked together form a polymer (a molecule that contains many monomers bonded together.



    Question to check understanding
    Question to check understanding together

    • What is the difference between a monomer and a polymer?


    Carbohydrates
    Carbohydrates together

    • The word carbohydrate literally means “watered carbon.”

    • Do you remember the chemical formula for glucose? How does that remind us of the formula for water?

    • C6H12O6


    Carbohydrate definition
    Carbohydrate Definition together

    • Molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

      • They include sugars and starches.

    • Carbohydrates can be broken down to provide a source of usable chemical energy for cells.

    • They are a major part of plant cell structure (our producers).


    Glucose simple sugar
    Glucose – simple sugar together

    • The most basic carbohydrates are simple sugars.

      • Glucose is a simple sugar (it contains six carbons and is called a monosaccharide).

      • Fructose, found in fruit, is another six carbon monosaccharide.


    Simple sugars can be bonded together
    Simple sugars can be bonded together together

    • Quick Test: When is glucose made?

    • Answer - photosynthesis

    • Simple sugars can be bonded to one another to make larger carbohydrates called polysaccharides.

    This is glucose linked as polysaccharides.


    Connecting a concept
    Connecting a concept together

    • Glucose is a monosaccharide – this makes it a what?

    • Answer – a monomer

    • A chain of glucose is a polysaccharide – so, a chain of glucose monomers makes a . . .

    • Polymer – a polymer is known as a macromolecule.


    Carbon based molecules part 1
    So . . . together

    • Multiple monosaccharides (monomers) linked together form polysaccharides (polymers).

    • Examples:

    Starch (storage and source of energy in plants), glycogen (storage and energy source in animals, and cellulose (plant structure), are polysaccharides

    This is a disaccharide known as table sugar


    Cellulose starch and glycogen
    Cellulose, Starch, and Glycogen together

    • Cellulose is a rigid, straight polymer which makes up the cell walls of plants.

      • it is tough and fibrous (a good source of your fiber).

    • Starch – made and stored by plants and can be broken down for energy by both plants and animals.

    • Glycogen – made and stored in animals is highly branched but essentially does the same thing in animals that starch does in plants.


    Interesting fact
    Interesting Fact together

    • Few animals have enzymes that allow them to hydrolyze cellulose.

    • Primary consumers (cows, pigs, goats, deer, termites, etc.), however, are able to use cellulose for nutrients because of protists and bacteria living in their guts.

    • Cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule on Earth.


    Entrance ticket
    Entrance Ticket together

    • What elements make up a carbohydrate?

    • Explain how the bonding properties of carbon atoms result in the large variety of carbon-based molecules in living things?