Lighting - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Lighting

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  1. Lighting • illumination and falloff • lighting instruments • technical and non-technical lighting objectives • contrast ratio • color temperature • lighting terms • lighting techniques

  2. Falloff the speed (degree) with which a light picture portion turns into shadow areas

  3. Fast Falloff fast falloff means that the light areas turn abruptly into shadow areas and there is a great brightness difference between light and shadow areas

  4. Slow Falloff slow falloff indicates a very gradual change from light to dark and a minimal brightness difference between light and shadow areas

  5. Fast Falloff

  6. Slow Falloff

  7. Fast Falloff

  8. Slow Falloff

  9. No Falloff

  10. Directional and Diffused Illumination • Directional Illumination • illuminates a relatively small area with a distinct light beam • produces well defined shadows and causes fast falloff • use spotlights which emit a directional light beam

  11. Directional and Diffused Illumination • Diffused Illumination • illuminates a relatively large area with a wide indistinct light beam • produces soft, rather undefined shadows and slow falloff • use floodlights which emit a diffused light beam

  12. Spotlights and Floodlights Scoop Floodlight Fresnel Spotlight

  13. Lighting Instruments Fresnel lens Aperture and shutters “Kookie” pattern holder Focusing spindle Lens system Ellipsoidal reflector Diffused light Scoop reflector

  14. Fresnel SpotlightBeam Control Spot - Directional Illumination

  15. Fresnel SpotlightBeam Control Flood - Diffused Illumination

  16. Fresnel SpotlightBeam Control Barn Doors

  17. Scoop Floodlight

  18. W-1 W-2 4 4 4 4 4 4 W-4 3 3 3 3 3 3 W-8 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 Control Room B-10 B-9 B-12 B-11 B-4 B-3 B-8 B-7 B-6 B-5 B-2 B-1 Mic 1 1 1 1 1 1 Mic 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 W-5 W-3 4 4 4 4 4 4 W-6 Mic W-6 W-5

  19. Technical Lighting Objectives • to provide enough light (baselight) for the camera • to limit the contrast ratio • to provide the proper color temperature

  20. Contrast Ratio Hi : Lo Lux 6000 : 100 fc 60 : 1 Contrast Ratio should be no more than 40:1 The difference between the brightest and the darkest spots in the picture (measured by reflected light in foot-candles).

  21. Color Temperature Color Temperature Low High

  22. Kelvin Scale 1000° 3200° 4000° 5600° >7000° portable light Portable Light Portable lights =3200°K

  23. Kelvin Scale 1000° 3200° 4000° 5600° >7000° portable light studio light Studio Light Studio lights =3200°K

  24. Kelvin Scale 1000° 3200° 4000° 5600° >7000° portable light studio light fluorescent tube Fluorescent Light Fluorescent lights =4000°K

  25. Kelvin Scale 1000° 3200° 4000° 5600° >7000° portable light outdoor rated light studio light fluorescent tube Outdoor Rated Light Outdoor rated lights=5600°K

  26. Kelvin Scale 1000° 3200° 4000° 5600° >7000° portable light outdoor rated light studio light daylight fluorescent tube Daylight Daylight >7000°K Outdoor rated lights=5600°K

  27. No White Balance White Balance White shirt appears white White shirt has bluish tinge Without adjustment Scene has bluish tinge Blue channel reduced White shirt appears white White shirt has orange tinge Scene has orange tinge Without adjustment Red channel reduced White Balance

  28. White Balance for Daylight

  29. White Balance for Studio

  30. Mixed Light Sources Mixed color temperature

  31. Kelvin Scale Kelvin Scale 1000° 1000° 3200° 3200° 4000° 4000° 5600° 5600° >7000° >7000° portable light portable light outdoor rated light outdoor rated light studio light studio light daylight daylight fluorescent tube fluorescent tube Mixed Light Sources Mixed color temperature

  32. Kelvin Scale 1000° 3200° 4000° 5600° >7000° portable light studio light Orange gels lower color temperature daylight Mixed Light Sources

  33. Kelvin Scale 1000° 3200° 4000° 5600° >7000° portable light studio light Blue gels raise color temperature daylight Mixed Light Sources

  34. Non-technical (Aesthetic) Lighting Objectives • to indicate form and dimension • to create an illusion of reality or non-reality • to indicate mood

  35. The Photographic Principle orBasic 3 Point Lighting

  36. Key Light • principal light source • reveals the basic shape of the object or person Key Light Key

  37. Back Light Back • provides more definition to the actual shape of the subject • separates her from the background • gives sparkle and highlights to her hair Back Light Key

  38. Fill Light Back • makes the shadow side more transparent • reveals details without erasing the form-revealing shadows altogether Fill Fill Light Key

  39. Background or Set Light Back Background or Set • illuminates the background or set area • must be on the same side of the camera as the key light in order to keep shadows on the same side Fill Set Light Key

  40. Lighting Angles and Elevation Key Back Key 30°-45° 45°-55° 35°-40° Back 30°-45° Fill Depends upon height of instrument Depends upon height of instrument

  41. Lighting Ratios Back (same as key: 200 fc or 2,200 lux • lighting ratios differ, depending on the specific lighting task or application • these ratios are a good starting point ———————————— Key : Back : Fill 1 : 1 : 1/2 Background (200 fc or 2,200 lux) Fill (100 fc or 1,100 lux) Key (200 fc or 2,200 lux) Camera

  42. Multiple Triangle Application • a separate lighting triangle with its own key, back, and fill light is used for each subject (or performance area) • you may use floodlights in more than one triangle, but if you have enough instruments, don’t make that compromise Back 2 Fill 1 Person 2 Person 1 Back 1 Fill 2 or Fill 1 & 2 (optional) Key 2 Key 1 Camera

  43. Side Light Back light • strikes the subject from the side • it can act as key and/or fill light • in this case, two opposing side lights are used as key and fill Side (spot, flooded) Side (spot, flooded) Camera

  44. Side Fill Light Back light • gives the key side of the subject basic soft illumination • allows the key to provide accent and sparkle • use a floodlight Side fill light Key light Fill light

  45. Kicker Back light (full intensity) Kicker (full intensity, low-angle position) • rims the subject opposite the key • emphasizes contour • helps separate the foreground subject from the background Fill light Key light

  46. Cross-Keying • the key light for person 1 also functions as back light for person 2 • the back light for person 1 also functions as the key light for person 2 • if you have enough instruments, use separate keys and back lights for each subject Person 2 Back 2 Person 1 Key 1 Back 1 Key 2 Camera

  47. Large Area Lighting • the fresnel spots at the left and right function as key and directional fill light • spots are also strung out as regular back lights behind the main action area • scoops provide additional fill light from the front Spots Spots or floods Spots or floods Floods Camera

  48. High Key Lighting • abundance of bright light • creates high-energy feeling • key light is flooded

  49. Dramatic Lighting • also known as Rembrandt lighting • uses contrast selectively • dimly lit with lots of dark screen areas

  50. Silhouette Lighting • unlighted objects or people in front of background • use only diffused background light