Lighting 4.05 Sherry Brooks
Can emphasize the best features of a room • Effects the way a room can be used. Inadequate light causes eye strain, affect comfort levels, and result in accidents. • ________________is very efficient, blends well with sunlight, and makes most colors look good • ________________ is efficient but _________ flattering to many colors
Purposes of lighting • _______________lighting: also known as _____________________ or ambient lighting. Provides just enough light so everything in the room can be seen. _______________ the shadows and harsh contrasts caused by other lighting sources. EX: Overhead light in any room Chandelier in dining room Ceiling fan with light
______________lighting: light that shines on specific areas • __________ light: reflected off ceilings and walls. More diffused and softer
_____________ lighting: focuses light on an area where it is needed most. To provide the best task light, shades should shaped so that light is directed ______________ EX: Desk lamp illuminates a desk top. Light above a range or kitchen island Light on sewing machine
___________ lighting: aimed directly on a specific object to create a dramatic effect. For the most dramatic effect, the accent lighting should be at least ________ times brighter than general lighting. EX: Light over a special painting, Lights in a china cabinet
Incandescent Bulbs • Light produced by electricity passing through a tungsten filament in a glass bulb. • This light tends to ___________ and flattering. • Bulbs are available in variety of shapes and can be clear or frosted • ___________ bulbs reduce glare and give a soft light
Incandescent bulbs (con’t) • Small __________ bulbs, used in chandeliers, give a sparkling effect. • Available in ______ to 300 watts • Used in ___________, overhead lights, outdoor lights
Halogen Bulbs • Special type of incandescent bulb • Filled with pressurized ____________ gas, which makes it more efficient than a regular bulb. • Usually ___________ than a regular bulb, produces a ___________ and more intense light • More _________ but last longer • Can become very hot (________F), can cause burns
Fluorescent Bulbs • Light that is produced when chemicals inside a sealed glass tube transform ______________ rays • Produce various color casts • Usually are long _________ tubes, but can also be __________ and U-shaped • Can produce up to _____times the light of a standard bulb of the same wattage
Fluorescent (con’t) • Look for the new ___________fluorescent bulbs (CFL) • These screw into regular light bulb sockets • Cost ________ but last longer • Cannot be used with _______switches or electronic timers
Light Emitting Diodes LED • This diode is a __________ “chip” about the size of a grain of salt and made of crystals. • An LED bulb can last _________ hours OR more (_____ longer than CFL, 133x longer than a regular bulb) • Considered to be the next major ___________ in lighting. • Just starting in residential use
CAUTION: ALL 120 AND 240 VAC BULBS ARE FOR USE WITH STANDARD ON/OFF SWITCHES ONLY (unless specified as dimmable). Use with any type of dimmer, relay or other control circuit will VOID WARRANTY. LEDs are very sensitive and subject to premature failure from electrical noise spikesExcessive heat will cause LEDs to fail prematurely. They must be operated in an ambient temperature, not exceeding room temperature, for maximum life time. As the temperature rises above 75 degrees F, the life time goes down. Active cooling, such as a small fan, may be required if they are installed in a small enclosed space without ventilation.
Fiber Optics • Fiber optic lights are being used primarily in ___________ and for displays because they emit no ________ and no ultraviolet ________ • Light flows through the glass strands and is focused at the ________
Structural Lighting • This is _______________ permanent lighting • Fixtures and wiring are _____________ from view. EX: wall washers soffit lighting strip lighting down-lights valence lighting cove lighting cornice lighting luminous ceiling panels
___________________________: recessed ceiling lights that spread light over a wall from ceiling to floor • __________________________: light source (usually a fluorescent tube) mounted over a window and hidden by window valence. Shines light both upward and downward
________________ lighting: mounted near the junction of wall and ceiling and directs light downward. Used to highlight wall hangings • _________________ lighting: concealed light source that directs light upward toward the ceiling. Gives appearance of added height • __________________________: direct a beam of light from ceiling downward. Can be accent or general lighting. Flush with ceiling
_________________: light enclosed in box-like structure that directs light downward. Usually a plastic panel diffuses the light, often used over kitchen and bathroom sinks • __________________________: consist of a row of incandescent bulbs around top or sides of mirror in baths • ___________________________: plastic panels covering fluorescent tubes. May cover all or part of ceiling, provides general light
Non-structural Lighting • Consists of fixtures that can be ______________ or replaced. Various ceiling and wall fixtures as well as portable _____________. • Consider __________ lighting, wall sconce, chandeliers, hanging pendants, lamps of all types and sizes. • Can use all types of bulbs.
Lighting for Safety • Prevents ______________ that occur in dim light or darkness • Make sure all fixtures have ___________ seal that shows that fixture meets safety guidelines. • Make sure ___________ wiring meets local and state electrical safety codes • Do not __________ outlets with too many lights. Can overload circuit and blow fuses or start fires in worst case
Safety Issue in Lighting • Are there switches at each ___________ into rooms • Light at ___________ of home • Light switch at ________ & bottom of stairs • Are there controls for __________/carport lighting from ___________ the house • Can you control outside lighting from inside the house
Future of Residential and Non-residential Lighting • Lighting," he observes, "can now be flatter, slimmer, neater, and more diffuse. It's just a completely new world." • It certainly is – particularly when you consider that lighting can now take on a role, which in the past, your paint or wallpaper might have fulfilled. "Once you've got relatively neutral colors on your wall, then how that wall appears is much more down to the lighting," says Mike. This makes the interior design of your home a much more flexible thing – something that, unlike paint, can be switched off or changed according to your mood. • Such integration of light into our home decoration is something that we can expect to see more of in the future, says Ray Molony, chairman of the judges at this year's Lighting Design Awards, who, alongside increased use of LEDs, expects to see lighting "built into furniture and surfaces" with "more controls for energy saving and creating moods." • LED lighting might be energy efficient, flexible and long lasting, but it still has a way to go before the quality and output is up there with halogens, says Andrew Johnson, Associate at Bruce Munro Ltd, and that puts people off. It’s not only that. With LED lights around five to ten times as expensive as halogens, they are still far too pricey for the average home owner. • The good news is that you shouldn't have too long to wait before these problems are rectified. As Mark Major says, "The rate of development is just incredible. I have no doubt at all that within the next few years, LEDs will be quite common place." • Emily Jenkinson is interiors writer for furniture and interior design website mydeco.com.