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The Early United States. Chapter 1 - 6. The Atlantic World. Chapter 1. Settlement of the Americas. First people came from 30,000 to 15,000 years ago Came across the Bering Strait Land Bridge during last ice age Migration – movement of people for the purpose of settling a new place

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The Early United States

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settlement of the americas
Settlement of the Americas
  • First people came from 30,000 to 15,000 years ago
  • Came across the Bering Strait Land Bridge during last ice age
  • Migration – movement of people for the purpose of settling a new place
  • People spread out all over North and South America
  • By 1400, 8 million people lived in current US
native american trade
Native American Trade
  • Group across the country traded with each other
  • Barter – trade
  • Used natural trade routes like rivers
  • Created extensive network of paths
native americans and land
Native Americans and Land
  • Never traded land with tribes
  • Believed land could not be owned
  • Opposite view of Europeans
europe the early middle ages
Europe – The Early Middle Ages
  • 500 to 1000 years ago
  • Much instability, many invasions
  • Feudalism – Nobel owned land divided among lesser lords
  • Manor system produced everything a person needed
  • Roman Catholic church grew in power
late middle ages
Late Middle Ages
  • Crusades – Catholics forced Muslims out of Jerusalem
  • Lasted 200 years
  • Growth of cities had major impact on society
    • Created middle class
    • Revived a money economy
    • Contributed to breakdown of feudal system
  • Monarchs became very powerful
  • Often clashed with each other
  • Built universities to educate noble’s children
  • Caused a cultural revolution
  • Black Death (Plague) killed 1/3rd
the renaissance
The Renaissance
  • Means “rebirth”
  • 1300-1550
  • Quest for learning – art, science, literature, politics
  • Michelangelo, Da Vinci, Shakespeare
  • Golden age of art
  • Concerned with humanist concerns
  • Took place all over Europe and Asia
  • Johann Gutenberg created printing press = Bible
  • Reformation – reform of Catholic church
  • Lead by Martin Luther
  • Monarchs combined small groups into nations
sea exploration
Sea Exploration
  • 1400 still got to Asia by land
  • New technology in seafaring
  • Compass and new ships
  • Portugal lead the way in sea exploration
  • Countries competed for sea power
  • Spain wanted land and religion to be spread
west africans and europeans meet
West Africans and Europeans Meet
  • Met in ancient times
  • Traded gold for European cloth
  • Europeans just wanted gold
  • Mostly peaceful friendship at the beginning
slavery in africa
Slavery in Africa
  • So much land that people valued labor more
  • Leaders collected people to serve them
  • Slaves became adopted members of the group that enslaved them
  • Did many things not just manual labor
  • By 1500, Europeans traded for people
  • As demand increased, those who fought back became slaves
christopher columbus
Christopher Columbus
  • Born in Italy son of a merchant
  • Spent most of his life at sea
  • Very religious, well schooled, moody, complex
  • Thought God had given him a heroic mission
daring expedition
Daring Expedition
    • Began to think he knew a different way to India
  • Reasons for his voyage
    • Hope to enrich his family and gain honor
    • Wanted to spread Catholicism
    • Spain’s rivalry with Portugal made them want faster routes
  • Destination: Asia
    • Friday August 3, 1492
    • Three ships: Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria
    • Sailors had many dangers – disease, weather
    • October 12 – Pinta saw land – San Salvador
later voyages
Later Voyages
  • Lead four trips to Americas
  • Was a bad governor – cruel to settlers
  • Columbus believed he was in the Indies
  • Lost governorship and died disappointed
a new continent
A New Continent
  • 1499 – Amerigo Vespucci made two voyages
  • Made detailed descriptions of “New World”
  • German mapmaker read the account
  • Drew first map and called it America
columbian exchange
Columbian Exchange
  • Transatlantic trade of new foods and animals
  • Cocoa, potatoes, horses, cows
  • Moved bad things too (disease)
native american devastation
Native American Devastation
  • Benefits to NA’s were outweighed by the misery
  • European diseases killed vulnerable NAs
  • Smallpox, typhus, measles, plague
the spanish pattern of conquest

Pattern based on violent conquest

  • Spanish invaded, Christians moved in
  • Three reasons for conquest
    • Spread Christianity
    • Gain loot for wealth
    • Win fame in the world
  • Conquistadors – Spanish conquerors
The Spanish Pattern of Conquest
cortes and pizarro

Cortes wanted gold

  • With 600 soldiers took over 10 million Aztec
  • Made allies with people who hated Aztecs
  • 1521 – destroyed Tenochtitlan(largest urban center in world)
  • Pizarro did same thing with Incas
  • Aided by smallpox and measles
Cortes and Pizarro
forts for defense

Lack of settlement caused Spanish government to encourage

  • Southeast Coast
    • Ships w/gold and silver needed protection along coast
    • Defensive bases set up all over Florida
    • St. Augustine oldest settlement in US
  • Southwest
    • Wanted to get in to mining the area
    • Explorer Juan de Onate settled New Mexico
  • West Coast
    • Wanted trade routes across Pacific
    • Try to keep other European rivals out of West
Forts for Defense

Presidios – Spanish forts

  • Each outpost had Franciscans or other missionaries
  • Dozens of missions (headquarters) set up
  • Converting NA
  • Forced NAs in to congregacions – European like places
native american resistance to the spanish

Some refused to cooperate, left or fought

  • Pueblo Revolt of 1680 – fought after drought weakened Spanish
  • Many rebellions in the south
  • Sicknesses caused them to be weak
Native American Resistance to the Spanish
  • English tried to settle in 1606
  • First step to settlement is charter
  • Charter forms a joint stock company – everyone has share in outcome
  • 100 colonists settled 60 miles north of James River in Virginia
  • Suffered many hardships, nearly failed
Conflict with Indians
    • Attacked by 200 early on
    • English offered to pay a tribute to stop attacks
    • Relationship started but tense
  • Unrealistic expectations
    • Settlers were not used to hard work
    • Thought they would get rich quick = gold
    • John Smith set up laws to make daily life possible
      • Set up near swamps and pools of standing water
      • Got drinking water from these, many diseases
    • Starvation
      • Little work = little food
      • Native Americans helped with food and water
    • Poor Leadership
      • Many internal fights with no real leadership
      • John Smith led for short period of time
  • In Europe, proclaiming Virginia as paradise
  • By 1623, 5,500 colonist went, 4000 died
tobacco the promised land
Tobacco – The Promised Land
  • Helped early colonists from failing completely
  • By 1640, 3 million pounds a year sent to Europe
  • To get labor started the Headright System
    • Every new colonist got 50 acres
  • Enclosure system of Europe causing farmers to lose fields
the english pattern of conquest
The English Pattern of Conquest
  • Good intentions went bad due to misunderstandings
  • Tense relationships
  • English had harsh attitude to NAs
  • Did not want NAs to blend in, wanted them out
native americans react
Native Americans React
  • March 1622 – surprise attack on Jamestown
  • Killed 350 colonists (25%)
  • Colonists fought back killing more NAs
  • Leader of NAs killed in the streets of Jamestown
the new england colonies
The New England Colonies
  • The French in North America
    • Explored the St. Lawrence River down Canadian boarder
    • Several explorers set up northern colonies
    • Samuel de Champlain – founded Quebec
    • Joliet & Marquette - explored Great Lakes
the fur trade
The Fur Trade
  • Found that fur could be sold
  • Highly fashionable in Europe
  • Often bought from Native American trappers
  • Fur trade determined the shape of New France
  • Ran along St. Lawrence and Great Lakes
the plymouth colony
The Plymouth Colony
  • Puritans and Separatists
    • 1534 – 1st successful New England colony
    • Puritans left England due to religious issues
    • Persecuted for their beliefs so they left
the mayflower
The Mayflower
  • Pilgrims left in 1620 with 100 people
  • 2/3rds of the people threatened to separate when ashore
  • Mayflower Compact – agreement to stay together and follow rules
  • Believed they had the right to choose own government
  • William Bradford became governor (30 terms)
massachusetts bay colony
Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • The Great Migration
    • 1630 – 1000 settlers came to MBC
    • By 1643 – 20000 lived in 20 towns including Boston
  • Reasons for Migrating
    • Religious tolerance – idea that people of different religions should live in peace
    • Did not want to live with people who had different beliefs
    • Law in MBC stated all had to attend Puritan church
    • Wanted to reform the church
    • Simple living, Bible study, church
Transforming New England
    • Started to farm
    • Convinced several tribes to become Puritan
    • Native men were forced to become farmers against will
  • A City Upon a Hill
    • Settled a new town and left an open area in the middle – common
    • Well organized town became the model for NE colonies
    • Believed America would be an example to the world
    • By 1700, 93,000 people lived in the NE Colonies
salem witch trials
Salem Witch Trials
  • 1692 – several people claimed the devil controlled them
  • False accusation were everywhere
  • Trials held – not fair
  • 20 men and women sentenced to hang
  • Perhaps fears of political change
  • MBC and Plymouth became one colony = Massachusetts
war with the indians
War with the Indians
  • Pequot War
    • 1st to fight with English
    • 1637-Puritans viciously attacked, fought back
    • Burned Pequot fort – 500 killed
    • Few survived, would carry grudge
  • King Philips War
    • Metacom – named King Philip by the settlers
    • United tribes and fought the English
    • English struck back
    • Killed Metacom, took over NE
    • Native Americans extinct in the area
england takes over
England Takes Over
  • King Charles II wanted the fort
  • Declared whole area for England
  • Sent fleet of ships and soldiers
  • With no defenses, surrendered quickly
  • Proprietary colony – colony granted by king or queen to and individual or group who had full governing rights
english civil war
English Civil War
  • 1640-1660 England ignored colonies due to civil war
  • King Charles I vs. Parliament
  • Oliver Cromwell and Parliament win
  • Eventually overthrown and restore Charles II to thrown
anger in the colonies
Anger in the Colonies
  • Colonists resented the king
  • New governors imposed taxes they kept
  • James II overthrown
  • William and Mary take over (Glorious Revolution)
  • Dissolve Dominion
  • Restored colonial governments
british colonial policy
British Colonial Policy
  • Origins of Self-Government
    • By 1700s all colonies had same government
    • Colonial legislature and governor
    • Legislature had huge power
salutary neglect
Salutary Neglect
  • English had strong local governments
  • Let colonies had freedom
  • Colonists were proud to be British
  • Salutary Neglect – Best policy was to let colonies alone
  • Big mistake
diverse colonial economies
Diverse Colonial Economies
  • Southern Colonies
    • Staple Crops – crops in constant demand
    • Rice 1730 16.9 million to 1770 83.8 million
    • Tobacco 1700 - 32 million to 1770 88.3 mil
    • Hard manual labor crops
    • Slave traded helped
    • 1750: slaves were 40% of population
    • Needed lots of land and labor
    • Huge plantations, few towns
middle colonies
Middle Colonies
  • Mix of farms and commerce
  • Farms were mostly grains
  • Many merchants, traders and craftsmen
  • Business of buying and selling
  • Population ethnically diverse
new england colonies
New England Colonies
  • Small farms and towns
  • Carrying trade – moved goods from place to place
  • Triangular Trade – Goods from Europe to Africa, Slaves from Africa to America, $ from America to Europe
life in colonial america
Life in Colonial America
  • Colonial Society
    • Place in society based on wealth, gender, race
    • Most believed people were not equal
    • Huge differences between ranks
    • Gentry – people wealthy enough to hire others
women s duties
Women’s Duties
  • Household management
  • Shared supplies and tools for large chores like weaving and gardening
  • Trained daughters
  • Eliza Lucas Pinckney – 14 ran 3 plantations
  • Indigo – plant used for blue dye
the nature of work
The Nature of Work
  • 1700s – life better in colonies than Europe
  • Able to advance in wealth and status
  • Everyone worked to survive
  • Self-sufficient – able to make everyone for one’s self
  • Children began work at 2
  • Most artisan work done in homes
free blacks
Free Blacks
  • Slaves could be freed or buy freedom
  • Laws – states had to approve freedom, had to leave colony in 6 months
  • Not much difference between slave and free
  • Poor and bad living conditions
  • Limited rights
  • Forgo freedom for families
laws and revolts
Laws and Revolts
  • Every colony had slave laws
  • Jailed for: owning pig, hitting white person, carrying a cane
  • Punishment: whip, banish to West Indies, death
  • Also applied to NAs
  • Stono Revolt
    • 1739 – 20 whites killed
    • Burned building, marched to Florida
    • Caught and killed on the way
western expansion
Western Expansion
  • Population doubled every 25 years
  • Rising birth rate and immigration
  • Immigration – people who enter a new country to settle
  • English, Irish, German
  • Started to move inland to Appalachian
  • Migration – movement
  • Getting on NAs land
native american reaction
Native American Reaction
  • NA pushed west by white colonists
  • Land occupied by other NAs
  • Disease killed many in New England
  • South – tribes were barrier to expansion
french reaction
French Reaction
  • Angry at English for posts built on their land
  • Attacked each others forts
  • Wanted control of beginning fork of Ohio River
  • Going to cause problems leading to Revolution
religious tensions
Religious Tensions
  • British = Protestants
  • South = Church of England
  • New England = Presbyterian
  • Pennsylvania = Quaker, Lutheran, Mennonite
  • NY and NJ – Dutch Reforms
great awakening
Great Awakening
  • Colonies lost touch with Puritan roots
  • Great Awakening – revival of religion
  • 1720 – 1760, not in all colonies
  • Jonathan Edwards of Massachusetts
  • Fiery sermons, energized crowds
  • Preachers were itinerant (travelling)
  • Open air revivals
  • Set the stage for change in mindsets