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Contents. Switching Errors and Impacts Traditional Prevention Approaches Smart Interlock System (SIS) Technology Development/Application of SIS in China. Impacts of switching errors:. Supply interruptions Equipment damages Human losses Legal liabilities ….

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contents
Contents
  • Switching Errors and Impacts
  • Traditional Prevention Approaches
  • Smart Interlock System (SIS) Technology
  • Development/Application of SIS in China
impacts of switching errors
Impacts of switching errors:
  • Supply interruptions
  • Equipment damages
  • Human losses
  • Legal liabilities
switching errors can be caused by
Switching errors can be caused by:

Inadequate

Process

Human

Error

Equipment

Failure

Other

……

common switching error types
Common switching error types:
  • Energizing when still grounded.
  • Closing grounding switch when energized.
  • De-energizing using disconnects instead of breakers.
  • Load dropping using disconnects instead of breakers.
  • Entering energized switching bays.
  • Correct switching sequence is the key.
preventative measures
Preventative Measures:
  • Process/Regulation:
    • Strict regulation and process control in all aspects of electric utility operations: design, construction, operation, personnel training and certification.
    • Switching order is the center piece that safeguards safe switching
  • Technology:
    • Locks and interlocking devices – mechanical/electromagnetic/electrical/programmed.
    • Rule/topology based automated switching order generation.
conventional locks and interlocks
Conventional locks and interlocks
  • They work to certain extent but have limitations
    • Lack of comprehensiveness
    • Lack of flexibility and scalability
    • Constrained by complexity
    • Lack of coordination between multiple switching within same station

………

preventative measure attributes
Preventative measure attributes

Reliable

Flexible and scalable

Comprehensive solution to all the 5 common types of switching errors.

Capable of verifying switching steps before switching.

Ensures that correct switching steps are followed during switching.

Easy to use and simple to install.

smart interlock system sis
Smart Interlock System (SIS)
  • Developed by Unitech in 1987 (Mr. Jin Shuqiang)
  • Rule/logic and configuration/topology based solution.
  • Programmable to suit any voltage levels and station sizes.
  • Have developed vast rules base and data base capable to accurately model complex real world situations.
  • One smart key for one station
  • Simulate switching to prevent switching errors.
  • Enhanced by the latest computing and communication technologies
smart interlock system sis10
Smart Interlock System (SIS)

SCADA

Workstation/Software

Smart Key

Locks

slide11

Smart interlock System (SIS) Process

Switching

Order

Open

Lock

  • Simulate switching step on the workstation.
  • Switching order generation.
  • Transferring steps to smart key.
  • Perform switching steps.
  • Return smart key to workstation with status updates.
slide12

Logic/Rules/Configuration Databases

  • Collect and model switching interlock logic and rules
  • Collect and model single line diagram of station/system
  • Logic/rules for each bay as well as inter-bay dependency in a station.

Status Database

Logic Database

slide13

Software/Model Interaction

  • Two databases are stored in a workstation.
  • The software works with models to display user interface.

Status

Database

Logic

Database

Work station

Human Interface

slide14

Smart Key – Only Need One for Each Station

  • Works with both electronic and mechanical locks
  • Capable of multiple wireless communication protocols
    • IrDA
    • Zigbee
    • CDMA/GPRS
  • Programmable RFID locks.
  • Voice reminder/recorder
  • Ambient temperature -40℃ to 80℃
slide15

Locks

Embedded with RFID technology

Programmed to work with the smart key

sis operation cycle simulation
SISOperation Cycle - Simulation

Simulation

Transfer

Switching

Completion

Allowed?

Logic

Database

Status

Database

sis operation cycle transfer
SISOperation Cycle - Transfer

Simulation

Transfer

Switching

Completion

sis operation cycle switching
SISOperation Cycle - Switching

Simulation

Transfer

Switching

Completion

sis operation cycle completion
SISOperation Cycle - Completion

Simulation

Transfer

Switching

Completion

example energize the line
Example: Energize the Line

Bus

Disconnect #1

Breaker

Disconnect #2

step 1 pre switching simulation
STEP 1: Pre-switching Simulation

Switching

sequence

Bus

Disconnect

#1

1.Close Disconnect #1

2.Close Disconnect #2

3.Close Breaker

Breaker

Error

Disconnect

#2

step 2 transfer switching instructions to smart key
STEP 2: Transfer Switching Instructions to Smart Key

Bus

Disconnect

#1

Breaker

1.Close Disconnect #1

2.Close Disconnect #2

3.Close Breaker

Disconnect

#2

step 3 perform switching
STEP 3: Perform Switching

Bus

Disconnect #1

Breaker

Disconnect #2

1.Close Disconnect #1

2.Close Disconnect #2

3.Close Breaker

step 3 perform switching24
STEP 3: Perform Switching

Bus

Disconnect #1

Breaker

Disconnect #2

1.Close Disconnect #1

2.Close Disconnect #2

3.Close Breaker

step 3 perform switching25
STEP 3: Perform Switching

Bus

Disconnect #1

Breaker

Disconnect #2

1.Close Disconnect #1

2.Close Disconnect #2

3.Close Breaker

step 4 switching complete steps saved
STEP 4: Switching complete-Steps saved

Bus

Disconnect #1

Breaker

Disconnect #2

performing switching
Performing switching

The unique programmed electronic ID in each RFID equipped locks ensures that only the corresponding smart key can open it. This virtually eliminates opening/closing the wrong disconnects or breakers.

sis benefits
SIS Benefits:

Switching Order

Switching Order

Switching

Simulation

Verification

Switching

Simulation before switching identifies and eliminates potential errors

SIS

Conventional Approach

sis benefits29
SIS Benefits:

Multi-switching bay switching coordination

Based on safe switching logic/rules

111-2 h: 111=0,111-1d=0,111-2d=0,111-1w=0,111-7=0,111-3=1!

111-2 l: 111=0,111-1d=0,111-2d=0,111-1w=0,111-7=0,111-3=1!

111-3 h: 111=0,111-1d=0,111-2d=0,111-1w=0,3-7=0,111-2=0!

111-3 l: 111=0,111-1d=0,111-2d=0,111-1w=0,3-7=0,111-2=0!

sis benefits30
SIS Benefits:

One key per station: easy to program and upgrade.

Many keys

Smart Key

sis benefits31
SIS Benefits:

Standardized locks. Easy to manage and to maintain

sis benefits32
SIS Benefits:

Reliable, flexible, easy to use. For stations of any voltage levels and bus types and setups.

30 years of sis development and application
30+ years of SISdevelopment and application

Mr Jin Shuqiang pioneered the SIS technology in 1987. Since then, Unitech Zhuhai and other companies in China continue to research and innovate in the area of safe switching technology.

2010

1999

1987

sis deployment in china
SISDeployment in China

Over 22,00 sites with SISin 2005

sis deployment in china cont
SISDeployment in China (cont.)

The number of switching error related incidents dropped significantly

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Smart Interlocking System (SIS) is proven reliable technology that prevents switching errors.
  • SIS has significantly reduced accidents and losses related caused by human errors in China.
  • We look forward to deploying SIS technology to customers in the United States and other parts of world.
slide41
Q&A

Questions??