CHEMICAL EXPOSURE AND THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: The real effects. Morgan J Foster PUBH -8165-10 Walden University February 10, 2010 A presentation to the average agricultural family.
What is Public Health? • “The science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals” (C. E. A. Winslow) • Mission • Promote Health • Prevent Disease • Assuring healthy conditions to the public • Functions • Assessment • Policy development • Assurance • Focus • Prevention • Educate • Health Promotion (Foster, 2009).
Rachel Carson(1907-1964) • Scientist • Advocate (Lear, 2000 & Robson, 2008).
The Endocrine System at a Glance • What is it? • Hormone system • What does it include? • 8 glands • Pancreas • What does it do? • Metabolism • Development • Reproduction (Healthline, 2009).
Pituitary • Master • Anterior • Posterior • Hormones (Healthline, 2009).
Adrenal • Layers • Functions • Hormones (Healthline, 2009).
Thyroid & Parathyroid • Location • Function • Hormones (Healthline, 2009).
Hypothalamus • Location • Control center • Activities (Healthline, 2009).
Pineal (thymus) • Sleep/wake cycle • Jet lag • In infants (Healthline, 2009).
Ovaries & Testes • Function • Female hormones • Estrogens • Progestogens • Male hormones • Androgens (Healthline, 2009).
Pancreas • Location • Function • Enzymes • Hormones (Healthline, 2009).
Role in Human Health The endocrine system is like a thermostat, increasing a certain hormone when little is detected in the blood or visa versa. This is a type of feedback mechanism which is key in the proper function of the body. When this function is skewed, certain diseases can form including: diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Addison’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome, gigantism, and hypogonadism. (Healthline, 2009).
Chemical Exposure • Pathways • Inhalation • Ingestion • Absorption (Moeller, 2005 p. 29-30).
Chemical Exposure cont’d • Excretion • Urine • Liver • Lungs (Moeller, 2005 p. 29-30).
Endocrine System vs. Chemical Exposure • Disruptors • Definition • Exposure routes • Effects • EPA Screening Program • Signs of occurrence (NRDC, 2009 & EPA, 2009).
Quick Overview • Public Health is focused on preventing disease and keeping lives healthy. • Rachel Carson was a huge advocate on the banning of pesticides. • The Endocrine system is important in development, reproduction, and growth • There are 8 main glands: hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal, ovary, and testes. The pancreas is also part of this system • If not kept in balance, diseases like diabetes mellitus can form • Chemicals can be brought into the body via inhalation, ingestion, and absorption • Chemicals are excreted via urine, liver, and lungs • These chemicals can altar the endocrine system by mimicking, blocking, or modifying • There are current screenings available by the EPA of chemicals
Articles to Read • Rawlings, N., Cook, S., & Waldbillig, D. (1998). Effect of the pesticides Carbofuran, Chlorpyrifos, Dimethoate, Lindane, Triallate, Trifluralin, 2,4-D, and Pentachlorophenol on the metabolic endocrine and reproductive endocrine system in ewes. Journal of Toxicology & Environmental Health, 54(1), 21-36. Available at http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail?vid=1&hid=4&sid=9a76176e-fcdd-4ea8-ad2d-5eecb6b1ba5f%40sessionmgr13&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=a9h&AN=7621101. • Rogan, W. & Ragan, B. (2003). Evidence of Effects of Environmental Chemicals on the EndocrineSystem in Children. Pediatrics, 112(1), 247-2532 Available at http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=4&sid=63bef241-405b-4bca-a1b1-084ad1cce147%40sessionmgr10&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=a9h&AN=10145231#db=a9h&AN=10145231.
Articles to Read (continued) • Thomas, J. (1998). Drugs and chemicals that affect the endocrine system. International Journal of Toxicology, 17(2), 129-138. Available at http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail?vid=1&hid=4&sid=70a1a514-c03c-4f53-9895-4a40afae0782%40sessionmgr11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=a9h&AN=7616947. • Tilson, H. (1998). Developmental neurotoxicology of endocrine disruptors and pesticides: identification of information gaps and research needs. Environmental Health Perspectives, 106(3), 807-811. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1533073/.
Websites to View • Draggan, Sidney (Contributing Author); Environmental Protection Agency (Content source); Emily Monosson (Topic Editor). 2008. "Endocrine disruption." In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Cutler J. Cleveland (Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment). Available at http://www.eoearth.org/article/Endocrine_disruption. • Green Facts: Facts on Health and the Environment. (2009). Scientific facts on endocrine disruptors. Available at http://www.greenfacts.org/en/endocrine-disruptors/endocrine-disruptors.htm.
References • Foster, Morgan J. (2009, August 12). Public health: What is it? PUBH 8002: Walden University. • Healthline. (2009). Endocrine system. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/endocrine-system. • Lear, L. (2000). The life and legacy of Rachel Carson. Retrieved February 7, 2010 from http://www.rachelcarson.org/Biography.aspx. • Moeller, D. W. (2005). Environmental Health (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.
References (continued) • Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). (2009). Endocrine Disruption. New York, NY. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from http://www.nrdc.org/health/effects/bendrep.asp. • Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). (2009). Endocrine Disruptors. New York, NY. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from http://www.nrdc.org/health/effects/qendoc.asp. • Robson, M. (2008). Toxicology and Environmental Epidemiology. Laureate Education, Inc. • United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2009). Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. Washington D. C. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from http://www.epa.gov/endo/.