The Church and Society • 1050-1150 strongest religious push. • Many monasteries and convents were made/started. • New religious orders started to pop up. Men were called friars: latin for brother. • Catholicism was still #1 in W. Europe, On Sundays people went to Mass. • Communion was taken: bread and wine • Prayed to Saints, who were in the presence of God. Named churches after them and touched relics.
The Church and Society • The Inquisition: The Church fearful of people not believing in them. Pursued heretics on charges of heresy. • Pursued Jews as well for beliefs and banking (interest=sin) • This created anti-semitism • Had to live places and have jobs Christians didn’t want.
Society and culture • Boom in art/architecture • People with wealth paid for large cathedrals to be built • Romanesque: church that is square w/ rounded domes • Gothic: has ribbed vaults & pointed arches • Bologna, Italy; Paris, France; Oxford, England (1231) had the first universities. Trained scholars; tested orally, could earn a specific degree like theology w/ more school. • Guilds were also around the they trained craftsmen. • Thomas Aquinas greatest Scholasticism. Used Aristotle's teachings of reason, said “natural law gave people rights.” • Vernacular = everyday language, which was Latin & other languages. Wrote troubadour poetry
Late Middle Ages • The plague took Europe in late 1200’s-1300’s. Killed roughly 32 million people. • Europe’s Economy 100 years War 1337-1453 • French vs. English over Normandy. Edward 3, Henry V, & Charles • English Archers at Crecy. • Joan, was a peasant & honest, Orleans. • Results in civil war called “War of Roses” in England. Henry Tudor becomes Henry the VII
Spain and Portugal • Muslims held the Iberian peninsula, Spain and Portugal. • Built Alhambra • Made schools for all • Christians started the Reconquista • Christians made three kingdoms: Portugal, Castile, & Aragon.
Spain and Portugal • 1496 Princess Isabella of Castile and Prince Ferdinand of Aragon marry. • Wanted Spain to be Catholic • Spanish Inquisition. Thousands tortured and killed. • Exodus of Jews • 10 year conquest forced Muslims to N. Africa