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Social 7 WAR AND BRITISH CONQUEST Chapter 5. KEY Focus. Competition between Britain and France to control North America thus shaping Canada Challenges within relationships between British, Canadian, and First Nations peoples. How challenges were met. Control of Acadia.

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key focus
KEY Focus
  • Competition between Britain and France to control North America thus shaping Canada
  • Challenges within relationships between British, Canadian, and First Nations peoples.
  • How challenges were met.
control of acadia
Control of Acadia
  • During 1600’s Britain, France, and Mi’kmaq wanted control of Acadia
  • Acadia represented a base for attacking each other , protecting their own colonies and trade routes.
  • Acadia was part of the Mi’kmaq homeland which they called Mi’kma’ki.
  • The Mi’kmaq allowed the French to settle on their lands and established trading with them.
acadia con t
Acadia Con’t
  • The French farmed lands the Mi’kmaq traditionally did not use.
  • They had a good relationship
  • Acadia was the centre of conflict between the British and the French due to its position relating to shipping routes and colony establishment.
  • By the 1700’s Acadians (combination of married French and Mi’kmaq peoples) were well established.
acadia 1713
Acadia 1713
  • Britain took control of Acadia 1713 after defeating France in the War of Spanish Succession.
  • Acadia was handed over to Britain as part of the peace agreement between Britain and France.
  • The agreement was called the Treaty of Utrecht.
british first nation relations
British/ First Nation Relations
  • British did not actively seek out relationships with Mi’kmaq.
  • Mi’kmaq fought colonization for almost 40 years from 1713-1752.
  • The fighting became the longest colonization war in North America.
britain france 1720 1749
Britain/France 1720-1749
  • The Treaty of Utrecht did not stop the conflict.
  • 1720 France build huge military fort on what we call Cape Breton Island today. Called Louisbourg.
  • France believed it was part of Acadia
  • Britain responded by building a military fort called Halifax.
the great deportation
The Great Deportation
  • 1713 Britain gave Acadians 1 year to leave
  • Most stayed until 1730 when they were forced to take an oath of “neutrality”
  • Simply put they would not fight in another war between Britain and France.
  • 1755 with war likely Britain made Acadians take another “oath of allegiance”
  • The oath stated Acadians would fight against France or be deported.
the great deportation con t
The Great Deportation Con’t
  • Between 1755-1763 11,000 Acadians were captured and sent to the Thirteen Colonies, to England, and to France.
  • Read p 149-153. Do Respond Questions 1-3 p. 154.
reasons for deportation
Reasons For Deportation
  • Acadia was a strategic position for fighting
  • Acadians would be drawn to fight with France because of similarities like language, religion etc.
  • 1755 Acadian settlers out numbered French settlers two to one.
  • Acadians refused to fight against France
  • British had no trust of the French descendent Acadians.
british conquest of north america the seven years war
British Conquest of North AmericaThe Seven Years War
  • Fighting began in 1754 along western boundary of Thirteen Colonies.
  • 1756 the War went global
  • 1760 Britain seized Quebec, war continued in other parts of the world like the Caribbean.
  • Britain took the French colony of Guadeloupe.
  • The war ended in 1763 with the signing of the Treaty of Paris (France basically gave up everything except Guadeloupe and a small cod fishery on the Islands of Saint-Pierre.
  • Read p. 156-157 Do Q. 1 and 2 on p. 157 (Plains of Abraham)
the battle of the plains of abraham september 14 1759
The Battle of the Plains of Abraham (September 14, 1759)
  • British troops were led by General James Wolfe
  • French troops were led by the Marquis de Montcalm
  • General Wolfe had been trying to capture the Plains for three months. He began on June 23.
  • In the beginning, he laid siege to Quebec (that means to surround a fort until it surrenders)
  • The fort (called Fortress Quebec) survived the gunfire and beatings, but many of the residents died
  • After three months of trying and failing, they attacked one evening from the rear.
  • The French were not expecting this and scrambled to counterattack. They did manage to get as many men as the British but the British were too experienced.
the battle of the plains of abraham september 14 17591
The Battle of the Plains of Abraham (September 14, 1759)
  • In the battle, both leaders were shot. Wolfe died immediately but Montcalm’s horse brought him back within the walls of the fort, then died.
  • The British captured Quebec because of this battle.
  • French army retreated to Montreal.
  • A few months later, the French returned to Quebec for revenge. They defeated the British at the Battle of Sainte-Foy
  • British retreated into city of Quebec where the French surrounded them
  • Running low on supplies, their future looked scary. A cargo ship was spotted on the horizon. Both sides were waiting for a ship. It turned out to be a British ship with men and supplies causing the French to flee for their lives.
treaty of paris
Treaty of Paris
  • The Seven Years War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris (France had to give up all its land claims to the British except for a few)
  • Part of the treaty guaranteed that Britain would not seek revenge against the French allies and it would allow the Catholic people of New France to practice this religion.
pontiac and minweweh
Pontiac and Minweweh
  • Pontiac was a leader of the Odawa Nation.
  • Minweweh was a leader of the Anishinabe.
  • Pontiac organized a rebellion against the British takeover.
  • This led to arguments between First Nations and British. Eventually, the British and First Nations both signed an agreement stating that the French defeat did not give the British access to First Nations land.
the last governor of new france pierre de rigaud de vaudreuil de cavagnial
The last Governor of New France: Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil de Cavagnial
  • He was the one who surrendered to the British
  • At the battle of Sainte-Foy when the French saw the British supply ship on the horizon, Pierre decided they couldn’t win, the fighting was pointless.
  • He took steps to protect the French, negotiating the Treaty of Paris.
  • This surrender angered the King and as a result, threw Vaudreuil in jail.
how did britain establish control
How did Britain Establish Control?
  • The Royal Proclamation of 1763- Britain’s attempt to establish lasting peace in its North American Colonies
  • Proclamation means law
  • This was being organized a few months after Pontiac began to organize his rebellion against British Rule.
  • The Proclamation tried to assimilate (make the same) Canadiens (French)
    • Forcing a British style government on Quebec
    • Not allowing Catholics to be a part of Government
    • Abolished French Civil Law (did not allow the seigneurs-habitant relationship, and ended tax support of the Catholic Church)
    • Allowed British settlers from the Thirteen Colonies to move into Quebec.
  • The Proclamation aimed to make peace with the First Nations
    • Made a “proclamation line.” This ensured no British settlement could occur in “Indian” territory until a First Nations person agreed.
the quebec act of 1774
The Quebec Act of 1774
  • Thirteen Colonies started to fight against Britain to become an independent country. This fight was called the “American War of Independence” (American Revolution)
  • Britain realized they were severely outnumbered by the rebelling people from the Thirteen Colonies and Quebec so they passed the Quebec Act.
  • This allowed Catholic people to practice their religion
  • Allowed Canadiens to hold government positions (once they took an oath of loyalty to Britain)
  • Allowed French Civil Law to happen again (still used today)
  • Made the boundaries of Quebec larger to support the fur trade and its economy.