ACT English Test PrepLesson 7 Hanyang University GAC Instructor: Samuel Kim
Rhetorical Skills Five primordial factors for effective writing/ evaluating texts: 1. Writing strategy Writer’s intention, point of view; target audience; attitudes, prejudices, and opinions that can be drawn from the audience
Rhetorical Skills 2. Transitions Words used to better organize your writing; e.g.: again, although, consequently, finally, for example Different types of transitional words and phrases Links similar ideas Links dissimilar/contradictory ideas Indicates cause, purpose, or result Indicates time or position Indicates an example or summary
Rhetorical Skills 3. Ordering ideas Logical construction of sentences and paragraphs;Within a paragraph, all sentences should expand on one main idea. Essay format (introduction, main body, conclusion) should be followed in essays. 4. Coherence/Unity One sentence depending on another sentence (e.g. argument+reason) Sandra is angry, and Joshua called Sandra at dawn. Sandra is angry because Joshua called her at dawn.
Rhetorical Skills 5. Style Three stylistic problems to avoid: Passive-voice constructions This trip will always be remembered by me. Redundancy He wrote his own autobiography. Wordiness The medical exam that he gave me was entirely complete.
Grammar Review I. Punctuations Comma, Colon, Semi-Colon, Apostrophe II. Verbs Tenses (Past, Present, Future, Perfect, Progressive) Moods (Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive) Subject-Verb Agreement Parallel Structure
Grammar Review III. Pronouns Three types: Personal, Indefinite, Relative Three cases: Subject, Object, Possessive Making Agreements and References IV. Common mistakes in words and expressions
Practice Exam Directions: This test consists of five passages. In each passage, certain words and phrases have been underlined and numbered. The questions on each passage consist of alternatives for these underlined segments. Choose the alternative that follows standard written English, most accurately reflects the style and tone of the passage, or best relays the idea of the passage. Choose “NO CHANGE,” if no change is necessary.
Passage I The first architect of the Capitol was appointed in 1797 by the President of the United States. During the period of the construction of the Capitol (1793-1865), several appointments such as this was (1) made to the position of architect at such times and for such periods as the various stages of the construction of the work required. The office of architect has; however, been (2) continuous from 1851 to the present.
1. • NO CHANGE C. these are B. these was D. this were 2. F. NO CHANGE H. has however; been G. has, however, been J. has, however been
Passage II The office’s functions (3) have change (4) materially through the years in accordance with the increased activities imposed on it by Congress, due principally to the addition of new buildings and grounds. Originally, the duties of the Architect of the Capitol was (5) to plan and construct the Capitol Building; yet, (6) later they included the requirement to supervise its care and maintenance.
3. • NO CHANGE C. function of the office’s • offices’ D. function of the offices’ 4. F. NO CHANGE H. changes G. changed J. been change
Passage III Permanent authority, for the care and maintenance of the Capitol Building, (7) is provided by an act of August 15, 1876. This act has been amended from time to time to provide (8) for the care and maintenance of the additional buildings and grounds placed under the jurisdiction of the Architect of the Capitol by Congress in subsequent years. 
7. A. NO CHANGE B. authority for the care and maintenance of the Capitol Building C. authority, for the care and maintenance of the Capitol Building D. authority for the care and maintenance of the Capitol Building 8. F. NO CHANGE G. act, amended occasionally, provides H. act, which has been amended on occasion to provide J. act, amended from time to time provides,
9. Which of the suggested sentences makes the best introduction to Paragraph 4 and the best transition from Paragraph 3? • NO CHANGE • The care of restaurants and streets is certainly a burden for the Architect of the Capitol. • Because it was established in the last century, this act has been met with continual debate due to the progress of the twentieth century. • Granted by the act of 1876, the Architect’s authority to care for and maintain United States buildings and grounds encompasses a varied set of duties.
Passage IV The Architect of the Capitol is much more (10) in charge of the structural and mechanical care of the United States Capitol Building and making arrangements with the authorized authorities in charge (11) for ceremonies held in the building and on the grounds; is responsible for the care, maintenance, and sprucing up (12) of the Capitol grounds, comprising approximately 208.7 acres of landscaping, parks, streets, and parking; is responsible for the structure and mechanical care of the Library of Congress Buildings and the United States Supreme Court; and under the direction of the Senate Committee on Rules Land Administration and the Committee on House Administration, respectively, is charged with the operation of the United States Senate and House restaurants.
10. • NO CHANGE H. quite a good deal more • more menu J. OMIT the underlined portion. 11. • NO CHANGE C. those • the proper authorities D. the authorities in charge, 12. F. NO CHANGE G. maintenance, nor improvements H. maintenance, and improvements J. Maintenance and, sprucing up
Passage V The Architect of the Capitol also is charged with the perk of (13) planning and constructing of such buildings (14) as may be assigned by Congress from time to time. Current projects include extension, reconstruction, alteration, and improvements under the additional House Office Building projects; and expansion, modification, and enlargement of the facilities of the Capitol Power Plant. 
13. A. NO CHANGE C. is charged with B. is charged with the D. is burdened with the “perk” of responsibility of 14. F. NO CHANGE H. buildings; as G. buildings, that J. Buildings. As
15. For the sake of paragraph unity, which sentence would best close Paragraph 5? • The sentence which currently ends the paragraph • Although the current projects are extensive, they do not preclude the Architect’s integral involvement in the future Congressionally approved planning and constructing of buildings. • For example, the extension of the United States Supreme Court has been in progress for five years to date. • Issues of landscaping, park appropriation, and street improvement can be dealt with by the Committee on House Administration.