Using ePortfolios to Improve Teaching, Learning, and Assessment Debra Dunlap Runshe Instructional Development Specialist University Information Technology Services - Learning Technologies Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis
Webinar Objectives By the end of this webinar, participants will be able to: • describe a variety of purposes for eportfolios • explain the process of “folio” thinking. • articulate why reflection is important to deep learning. • understand how to use eportfolios for assessment purposes. • access resources that will help them begin to use eportfolios to improve teaching and learning.
How are ePortfolios Used? Teaching & Learning Self-Representation & Identity Development Accountability & Assessment
What is an ePortfolio? “A digitized collection of artifacts, including demonstrations, resources, and accomplishments that represent an individual, group, or institution.” (Reese & Levy, 2009) “Created by the three principal activities of collection, selection, and reflection, student portfolios can be succinctly defined as collections of work selected from a larger archive of work, upon which the student has reflected. Portfolios can be created in many different contexts, serve various purposes, and speak to multiple audiences.” (Yancey, 2001)
Balancing the Two Faces (Barrett, H. 2010)
Learning or Reflection • Focused on process, students: • learn to self assess through the reflection process. • increase their depth of knowledge through the reflection process. • take control of their own learning leading to greater self-confidence. • develop life long learning skills. • … a series of events, the journey (Barrett, H. 2010)
Showcase or Accountability • Focused on product, students: • have a tool for personal development. • create a personal learning record. • develop a direction for career planning. • showcase their strengths and accomplishments. • … the outcomes/results, the destination (Barrett, H. 2010)
Student Development Personal development plan; academic/career planning Personal academic web site (take ownership of learning) Capstone (integrate learning in expanded range of media; through reflection, articulate learning and accomplishments) Resume-building
Typical Guided Portfolio Workflow • Student uploads artifacts, fills out forms and/or writes a reflection • Student requests and receives formative feedback from assigned or student-selected reviewers • Student submits for evaluation • Evaluator rates and comments on work
Rubric for Reflective Thinking (Cambridge, B., Cambridge, D. & Yancey, K., 2009)
English Capstone Portfolio (Kahn, S. & Ramsey, K., 2011)
Reflective Portfolio (Cambridge, D., 2010)
What is reflection? • Metacognition • Re-processing ideas to support understanding • Questioning assumptions • Seeing in multiple contexts • Self-examination • Integration • Self-assessment (Kahn, S. & Ramsey, K., 2011)
Forms of Reflection • Account/analysis of a process • Analysis of an experience • Analysis that connects a series of experiences • Analysis of an artifact • Analysis that connects a series of artifacts • Review of progress • Goal-setting • Synthesis (Kahn, S. & Ramsey, K., 2011)
Some Issues To Consider • How can we teach students to reflect? • What kinds of scaffolding/support do students need at different levels and in different contexts? • When and how often should students reflect? • How can we assess reflection? (Kahn, S. & Ramsey, K., 2011)
Preparing for Reflection • Evaluation of sample reflections • Written and oral peer review of rough drafts • Final reflection • Importance of: • Thoughtful, appropriate prompts • The “right” amount of reflection to assign (Kahn, S. & Ramsey, K., 2011)
Value of Reflection • Helps students make knowledge by articulating connections • Introduces students to new kinds of self-assessment that they carry into the rest of their lives • Helps develop habits of reflective practice • Supports deeper engagement in learning • Provides evidence of learning not available by other means (Kahn, S. & Ramsey, K., 2011)
Integrative Learning “Portfolios are inherently integrative, being composed of heterogeneous artifacts, the connections between which are explored through reflection” (D. Cambridge, 2009) “As students go through the process of collection, selection, and reflection, they show the ability to identify the larger design that informs their college experience” (T.S. Edwards & C. Burnham, 2009)
“Folio” Thinking “’Folio’ thinking enables students to become aware of, document, and track their learning and develop an integrated, coherent picture of their personal learning experiences from both inside and outside of the classroom." ~Helen Chen
ePortfolios for Accountability • Catalyst for more deliberate integration of general education and disciplinary outcomes into the curricula • Supports guided learning experiences • Develops authentic evidence for documenting and assessing student attainment of general education and/or discipline-specific outcomes • Aggregates assessment data for improvement and accountability
Implementation Issues • How will the portfolio be designed to fulfill the institution’s or department’s purposes? • How will the portfolio be integrated into program curricula? What changes will this require? • Who will read and evaluate student portfolios? When? • What are the infrastructure needs? What resources are needed? • What faculty development is needed? What skills will students need to develop? (Kahn, S., 2010)
IUPUI’s DNP Curriculum to ePortfolio Our DNP ePortfolio matrices mirror the DNP curriculum waterfall from accreditation essentials that informed IUSON’s program outcomes that then led to curriculum course/competency choices. (Meek, J.A., Riner, M.E. & Runshe, D., 2012)
IUPUI’s DNP Guided ePortfolio • Define and link student artifacts • Artifacts can be papers, media, PowerPoints, reflective activities, or any other student learning product (Meek, J.A., Riner, M.E. & Runshe, D., 2012)
IUPUI’sDNP Matrices (Meek, J.A., Riner, M.E. & Runshe, D., 2012)
IUPUI’s DNP Program Evaluation • Faculty need an ongoing program evaluation process using student artifacts in each matrix cell. These artifacts are evaluated for degree to which they provide evidence that student has accomplished the designated learning competencies. • Scoring rubric developed e.g., artifacts reflect minimal, moderate, extensive levels of evidence for designated learning competency. • Faculty will receive ongoing training to use scoring rubric; developed efficient process where program level assessment can be completed in a 3-hour session once per semester (Meek, J.A., Riner, M.E. & Runshe, D., 2012)
Rubrics and ePortfolios Rubrics have been identified as the ideal means for portfolio assessment (Buzzetto-More & Alade, 2006) Rubrics are also particularly useful in assessing complex and subjective skills (Dodge & Pickette, 2001)
Advantages of Rubrics • Makes expectations clear • Prepares students to use detailed feedback • Encourages critical thinking • Facilitates communications with others • Helps students self-assess eTOOLS FOR RUBRIC CONSTRUCTION Rubistar http://rubistar.4teachers.org iRubric http://www.rcampus.com/indexrubric.cfm
AAC&U’s VALUE Rubrics Intellectual and Practical Skills • Inquiry and analysis • Critical thinking • Creative thinking • Written communication • Oral communication • Reading • Quantitative literacy • Information literacy • Teamwork • Problem solving Learning Outcomes for the development of VALUE Rubrics Personal and Social Responsibility • Civic knowledge and engagement-local and global • Intercultural knowledge and competence • Ethical reasoning • Foundations and skills for lifelong learning Integrative and Applied Learning • Integrative and applied learning (Retrieved from www.aacu.org/value/metarubrics.cfmOctober 23, 2010)
Advantages for Assessment “Authentic assessment-using actual student work products that reveal their responses to the learning opportunities they are experiencing - is the best type of measurement for suggesting directions for improvement. For a decade I have argued that student electronic portfolios evaluated with rubrics provide our best hope for assessing what students actually know and can do (validity). Portfolios can provide dramatic and convincing evidence of learning over time (value added) and there is evidence that multiple evaluators can achieve levels of agreement (reliability) exceeding 0.90.” (Banta, T., 2012)
ePortfolio Research Projects Making Connections: http://www.laguardia.edu/connections/ Inter/National Coalitions for Electronic Portfolio Research: http://ncepr.org/
ePortfolio Associations AAEEBL: http://www.aaeebl.org/ EPAC: http://eportfolioca.org/ EIfEL: http://www.eife-l.org/
AAEEBL Webinar Series (Retrieved from http://www.aaeebl.org/eport-webinaron August 2012)
AAEEBL Conference Resources (Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/site/choosingeportsoftware/homeon August 2012)
Choosing ePortfolio Software • Identify primary and secondary purposes • Who are your users and stakeholders? • What is the value proposition for each? • What are their needs and expectations? • Focus on functional needs (what they need to do), not technical (how they need/want to do it) • Create a needs matrix and prioritize (must have, should have, nice to have) and use it to evaluate solutions PUT THE USERS’ NEEDS FIRST! (Ward, L., 2011)
Software Options BUY: commercial packagesTaskStream, LiveText, Chalk&Wire, etc. BORROW: open/community sourceOSP, Mahara, Elgg BUILD: develop a custom applicationCareer Portfolio (Florida State University)STEPS for Assessment (CSU Chico State) ADAPT: use and combine generic tools Google sites, Blogs, Wikis, survey software (Ward, L., 2011)
Bowling Green State University: http://www.bgsu.edu/offices/studentsuccess/page31296.html Clemson University: http://www.clemson.edu/academics/programs/eportfolio/ IUPUI Personal Development Plan: http://pdp.uc.iupui.edu/Home.aspx/ LaGuardia Community College ePortfolio: http://www.eportfolio.lagcc.cuny.edu/ Portland State University: http://sites.google.com/site/eportfolioresources/Home/ePortfolio-Showcase San Francisco State University: http://eportfolio.sfsu.edu/ University of Michigan: http://mportfolio.umich.edu/index.html Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University: http://eportfolio.vt.edu/ ePortfolio Galleries
In Summary: Uses of ePortfolios Support/document academic and professional development Increase student engagement and achievement Help students become more intentional, integrative learners Support reflective practice Support curricular development Support authentic assessment for improvement and accountability Support academic and career advising
Why Use ePortfolios? • For students • Track and document own growth and development • Increase engagement in learning • Integrate and apply learning • Develop capacities for reflection and metacognition • For faculty • Track development of abilities over time • Enable assessment of broader set of abilities and skills • Support active learning aimed at promoting deeper learning • Support integrative, reflective learning • For programs and institutions • Support academic and career advising • Enable authentic and psychometrically rigorous assessment for admissions, improvement and effectiveness, accreditation • Provide richer, more contextualized information to guide curriculum/program development and improvement (Adapted from Kahn, S., 2010)
Thank You for Your Participation! Debra Dunlap Runshe, Instructional Development Specialist University Information Technology Services – Learning Technologies Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis Information Technology and Communications Complex (IT 342H)535 West Michigan Street, Indianapolis, IN 46202 Phone: 317-278-0589 Email: email@example.com
Resources ALTEC at University of Kansas. RubiStar. Web site: http://rubistar.4teachers.org Association for Authentic, Experiential, and Evidence-Based Learning. Web site: http://www.aaeebl.org/ Association of American Colleges and Universities. (2009, Winter). Peer review: Emerging trends and key debates in undergraduate education, 11 (1). Association of American Colleges & Universities: VALUE Project. Web site: http://www.aacu.org/value/ Banta, T. W. & S. J. Hamilton. (2007). Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis: General education case study. In M. J. Bresciani (Ed.). Assessing student learning in general education: Good practice case studies. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Banta, T.W. (Ed.). (2003). Portfolio assessment: Uses, cases, scoring, and impact. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Resources Banta, T. (2012). “Our primitive art of measurement”. Peer review (Vol. 1, No. 4/Vol. 14, No. 1; Fall 2011/Winter 2012). Association of American Colleges Universities. Barrett, H. (2010.) Balancing the Two Faces of ePortfolios. Educação, Formação & Tecnologias, 3(1), 6-14. [Online], Available online: http://eft.educom.pt Barrett, H. Web site: http://electronicportfolios.org Buzzetto-More, N. A., & Alade, A. J. (2006) Best practices in e-assessment. Journal of Information Technology Education. 5:251-269. Cambridge, B., Cambridge, D. & Yancey, K. (Eds.). (2009). Electronic portfolios 2.0: Emergent research on implementation and impact. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.
Resources Cambridge, B. L., Kahn, S. ,Tompkins, D. P. & Yancey, K. B. (Eds.). (2001). Electronic portfolios: Emerging practices in student, faculty, and institutional learning. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Cambridge, D. (2010). E-portfolios for lifelong learning and assessment. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Dodge, B., & Pickett, N. (2001). Rubrics for web lessons. Retrieved 10/23/2010 from http://webquest.sdsu.edu/rubrics/weblessons.htm Kahn, S. (2010). An introduction to eportfolios. Presentation at European Association for Institutional Research Annual Conference, Barcelona, Spain Kahn, S., Cooney, E. & Runshe, D. (2009) ePortfolios and Integrative Department Grants as an Implementation Strategy. Presentation at The Assessment Institute, Indianapolis, IN. .
Resources Kahn, S. & Ramsey, K. (2011). Improving reflection for effective portfolios. Presentation at AAEEBL ePortfolio World Summit 2011, Boston, MA. Lorenzo, G, & Ittelson, J. (2005b, October). Demonstrating and assessing student learning with eportfolios. Educause Learning Initiative Paper 3: 2005. Meek, J.A., Riner, M.A. & Runshe, D. (2012). Using eportfolios to support knowledge development and reflection. Presentation at 2012 AAEEBL Annual Conference, Boston, MA. Reazon System, Inc. iRubric. Web site: http://www.rcampus.com/indexrubric.cfm Reese, M., and R. Levy (2009). Assessing the future: E-portfolio trends, uses, and options in higher education. (Research Bulletin, Issue 4). EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ecar .
Resources Reeves, T. C. (2000). Alternative assessment approaches for online Learning environments in higher education. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 23, 101-111 Stevens, D. D. & Levi, A. J. (2005). Introduction to rubrics. Sterling, VA: Stylus. Ward, L. (2011). Choosing eportfolio software. Presentation at AAEEBL ePortfolio World Summit 2011, Boston, MA. Yancey, K. B. (2001). Digitized Student Portfolios. In Electronic portfolios: emerging practices in student, faculty, and institutional learning (pp. 15-30). Washington, D.C: American Association for Higher Education. Zubizaretta, J. (2009). The learning portfolio: Reflective practice for improving student learning (2nd ed.). Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing Company, Inc.