Europe Explores the WorldThe interaction of different societies beings about the development of new ideas, art, and technology. In the 1400s, many trade routes collapsed. At the same time, Europeanslearned new technologies from Asia and the Arab world and invented some of their own. This led to an ageof exploration. Chapter 10, Section 1
Standards to know… WH7.11 – Students analyze political and economic change in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. • WH7.11.1 – Know the great voyages of discovery, the locations of the routes, and the influence of cartography in the development of a new European worldview. • WH7.11.2 – Discuss the exchanges of plants, animals, technology, culture, and ideas among Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and the major economic and social effects on each continent.
Before we begin… • Draw a chart like the one below. Use it to name the explorers discussed in this section, the country they sailed for, and the places they explored.
Europe Gets Ready to Explore • Main idea: In the 1400s, trade, technology, and the rise of strong kingdoms led to a new era of exploration. • In the 1400-1500s, the nations of Western Europe began exploring the world/controlling Americas, parts of India and Southeast Asia • Many events created the right conditions for exploration during this time
Trade With Asia • In the 1400s, it became harder to trade for/purchase Asian goods (spices, silk, etc.) in Europe than during Middle Ages… • Collapse of Mongol Empire and Silk Road • New rulers imposed new taxes on merchants, making Asian goods more expensive • Ottoman Turks conquered Byzantine Empire • Blocked Italian merchants from entering Black Sea (where Asian goods bought/sold) and Turks raised prices • Europe still wanted Asian goods, and those who found them cheaply could make a fortune, so merchants began searching for a new route to East Asia that bypassed the Middle East
New Technology • Europeans wanted to explore, but needed the right technology as Atlantic Ocean was difficult/dangerous to navigate • From Arabs, Europeans learned about the astrolabe (to find latitude) and the compass (to find north) • Began using Arab developed triangular sails, allowing ships to zigzag in wind • Built smaller ships with many masts and smaller sails to make ship travel faster, with a new rudder to easier steering • First seen on Portuguese caravels
The Rise of Strong Nations • Even with new technology, exploration was dangerous/expensive • During Middle Ages, European kingdoms were too weak and couldn’t afford to fund exploration until the 1400s • The rise of towns/trade helped make governments stronger • Rulers could tax kingdom and use money for army/navy • With new power/resources strong central governments were formed • Four major European kingdoms emerged by end of 1400s, Portugal, Spain, France, England • All has harbors on Atlantic Ocean and were anxious to find route
Did Maps Encourage Exploration? • Yes, DUH! • By 1400s, most educated people knew that the world was round, but even they only had maps of Europe and Mediterranean • During Renaissance people began studying ancient maps/books from Arab scholars • Geography by Claudius Ptolemy (Greek educated Egyptian geographer) discovered/printed in 1400s • Distributed all over Europe • Ptolemy’s theories about cartography were very influential and his system of latitude and longitude is still used • Another book by Arab geographer al-Idrisi, and published in 1154, showed the parts of the world known to Muslims • By studying these two geographers, Europeans learned the geography of East Africa and the Indian Ocean, and if they could find a way around Africa they could get to Asia!
Why were Europeans able to go exploring in the 1400s? • What were the main reasons that they began exploring the world? • What contributed to Europeans’ knowledge of the world beyond Europe and the Mediterranean?
Exploring the World • Main idea: While the Portuguese explored Africa, the Spanish, English, and French explored America. • In the 1400s Europe was ready to explore! • England and France still fighting • Spain still fighting Muslims • Portugal had the first chance
Who Was Henry the Navigator? • In 1419, Prince Henry “the Navigator” of Portugal, set up a research center in southern Portugal • He invited sailors, cartographers, shipbuilders to come/help him explore the world • 1420 Portugal began mapping Africa’s coastline and trading with African kingdoms • Seized Azores, Madeira, and Cape Verde Islands and soon discovered sugarcane could grow on islands • 1488 Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias reached southern tip of Africa • 1497 Vasco da Gama went further, rounding the tip, across the Indian Ocean, and landed on India’s coast • Water route to east officially located
Vasco da Gama Henry the Navigator Bartolomeu Dias
Christopher Columbus • While Portugal explored Africa, Italian navigator Christopher Columbus developed plan to reach Asia, sailing across Atlantic Ocean • Needed someone to finance trip, but turned down by Portugal, England, France • 1492, Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain agreed to finance trip, having finally driven out the Muslims they could afford it • With three ships (the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria), left Spain and headed west • After weeks at sea crew felt desperate, finally sighting land (island of San Salvador..?) Columbus claimed land for Spain and continued to explore Cuba and Hispaniola • Believed they had made it to Asia, and went on to conduct three more voyages never realizing it was the Americas (eventually Europeans realized it was a separate continent)
Who Was Magellan? • One of the many Spanish explorers of the Americas in the 1500s was Ferdinand Magellan • Tried to finish what Columbus had set out to do, left Spain to sail around Americas all the way to Asia • Sailed south along South America and found a way around continent through the passage he discovered the Straight of Magellan, entering a peaceful or ‘Pacific’ Ocean • Headed west with starved sailors (eating leather, sawdust, rats) and after four months reached the Philippines • Local people killed Magellan, and crew continued west across Indian Ocean, around Africa, back to Spain • First to circumnavigate the world
The First English and French Explorers • As news spread of Columbus’s journey, England decided to find their own route • 1497, John Cabot’s ship crossed the Atlantic and encountered large island of Newfoundland • From there he traveled south along Canada but did not find path to Asia • Disappeared on second trip and never heard from again • 1524, France sent Giovanni da Verrazzano to map America’s coast and find route to Asia • Able to map North Carolina to Newfoundland, but also failed to find Asia • 1534, France sent Jacques Cartier who sailed past Newfoundland entering St. Lawrence River • After these two trips, France stopped exploring as Protestants and Catholics were fighting a civil war
Who was the first European to sail to India? Whose crew was first to sail around the world? • How do you think the exploration of the Americas might affect political rivalries among France, Spain, and England? 3. Which explorer traveled the western coast of North America? When? 4. Why could Ferdinand and Isabella fund exploration in 1492?
THINK • What was a caravel, and why was it important? • Describe the accomplishments of Ferdinand Magellan. • Which explorer do you think accomplished the most? Why? • What knowledge and inventions of other cultures did Europeans use in their explorations? How did they help the explorers?
For next time… • joint-stock • colonies • sugarcane • cottage industry • commerce • privateer • capitalism • mercantilism