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RESTAURANT MANAGEMENT (HM 432). CHAPTER 4 (Part 1) Food and Beverage Service Areas and Equipment. 4.1 Origin of the Menu. Bill of fare in English or menu in French It was not presented at the table… Programme of the dishes...

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restaurant management hm 432


CHAPTER 4 (Part 1)

Food and Beverage Service Areas and Equipment

4 1 origin of the menu
4.1 Origin of the Menu
  • Bill of fare in English or menu in French
  • It was not presented at the table…
  • Programme of the dishes...
  • It was very large and was placed at the end of the table for everyone to read.
  • As time progressed the menu became smaller and increased in quantity allowing a number of copies per table.
4 2 compiling of menus
4.2 Compiling of Menus
  • There are a number of considerations to bear in mind when compiling a menu, namely:
  • Type
  • Assess the type of meal required
  • Assess the type of kitchen and staff available in relation to equipment and skills
  • Assess the type of food service area and its number capacity in relation to the china, silver and glassware available, the skills of food service area staff and the number of courses to be served
4 2 compiling of menus1
4.2 Compiling of Menus
  • Supplies
  • Seasonal supplies
  • Local availability of supplies
  • Balance
  • Light to heavy and dark to light
  • Vary the sequence of preparation of each course
  • Change the seasoning, flavoring and presentation
  • Ensure that garnishes are in harmony with the main dishes
4 2 compiling of menus2
4.2 Compiling of Menus
  • Food value
  • Use commodities and methods of cooking which will preserve the natural nutritive properties of the raw materials
  • Colour
  • Avoid either clashes of colour or repetition of similar colour
4 2 compiling of menus3
4.2 Compiling of Menus
  • Language
  • The menu should be written either all in French or all in English and be easily understood by the customer
  • Ensure proper spelling, correct terms and the correct sequence within courses
4 3 classic menu sequence
4.3 Classic Menu Sequence
  • The number of courses on a menu, and dishes within each course, depends on the size and class of the establishment.
  • In an establishment where full food preparation and service brigades are in operation a full menu may be offered. In this case the courses or sections of the menu may be divided as follows:
4 3 classic menu sequence1
4.3 Classic Menu Sequence


  • Hors-d’oeuvre
  • Soup (Potage)
  • Egg (Oeufs)
  • Rice and pasta (Farineaux)
  • Fish (Poisson)
  • Entrée
  • Sorbet
  • Releve
  • Roast (ROti)
  • Vegetables (Legumes)
  • Salads (Salades)
  • Cold Buffet (Buffet froid)
  • Sweet (Entremet)
  • Savoury (Savoureux)
  • Cheese (Fromage)
  • Fresh fruit (Dessert)
  • Beverages

Main Courses

4 3 classic menu sequence2
4.3 Classic Menu Sequence

1. Hors-d’oeuvre

  • Are of a spicy nature in order to stimulate the appetite.
  • Are either served from a rotating trolley or a tray.
  • Examples of hors-d’oeuvre are:
  • Russian salad (mixed vegetable salad)
  • Potato salad
  • Anchovies
  • Tomato salad
  • Fish mayonnaise
  • Choux rouges — red cabbage
  • Egg mayonmzise
4 3 classic menu sequence3
4.3 Classic Menu Sequence

1. Hors-d’oeuvre

  • The term hors-d’oeuvrealso covers any item to be served or listed on the menu before the soup, usually known as ‘hors-d’oeuvre substitutes’.

Examples of hors-d’oeuvre substitutes are:

  • Caviar
  • Shellfish cocktail — prawns or shrimps on a bed of shredded lettuce
  • Saumonfüme— smoked salmon
  • Truite fume—smoked trout
  • Huitres— oysters
  • Cocktail Florida — fruit cocktail made up of orange and grapefruit segments
4 3 classic menu sequence4
4.3 Classic Menu Sequence

2. Soup (potages)

  • Soup may also act as an appetizer for the courses to come.
  • Two soups are usually provided on the menu, one being a clear soup (consommé) and the other a thick soup (crème velouté, purée).

Examples of soups are:

  • Bisque d’homard— thick lobster flavoured soup
  • Crème de tomates— cream of tomato
  • Soup a l’oignon— clear onion soup
  • Bortsch — duck flathured consommé
4 3 classic menu sequence5
4.3 Classic Menu Sequence

3. Egg dishes (oeufs)

Examples of egg dishes are:

  • Omeletteespagnole — flat omelette with onion, peppers and tomato
  • Omelette aux tomates — tomato omelette
  • Omelette aux champignons — mushroom omelette
  • Omelette fines herbes — savouryomelette
4 3 classic menu sequence6
4.3 Classic Menu Sequence

4. Pasta and rice dishes (farinaceous/farineux)

Examples of Farinaceous dishes are:

  • Spaghetti napolitaine— in a tomato and garlic flavoured sauce
  • Spaghetti bolognaise — with minced lean beef in rich brown sauce
  • Ravioli — noodle type pasta filled with a variety of stuffings such as chicken, beef spinach
  • Cannelloni — rolls of ravioli paste filled with stuffings as for ravioli
4 3 classic menu sequence7
4.3 Classic Menu Sequence

5. Fish (poissons)

The method of cooking and type of fish used may vary to some extent, but will normally be as follows:

  • Poached: salmon, turbot, trout (each with its appropriate garnish and accompanying sauce);
  • Cooked meuniêre: sole, trout, salmon (with correct garnishes);
  • Fried: whitebait, sole (sometimes);
  • Hot shellfish: lobster, crayfish, Dublin Bay prawns.
4 3 classic menu sequence8
4.3 Classic Menu Sequence

6. Entrées

  • An entrée is the first meat course on the French classical menu.
  • Entrées are generally small, well-garnished dishes which come from the kitchen ready for service. They are always accompanied by a very rich gravy or sauce.
4 3 classic menu sequence9
4.3 Classic Menu Sequence

8. Relevés

  • Relevés are normally larger than entrées and take the form of butchers joints which have to be carved. These joints are either poêled or roasted. A sauce or roast gravy and potatoes and green vegetables are always served with this course.
  • The main dish may consist of any of the following items: saddle of mutton, baron of beef, boned sirloin, braised ham etc.

9. Roast (rôtis)

  • Roast always consists of roast game or poultry: chicken, turkey, duck, pheasant, quail etc. Each dish is accompanied by its own particular sauce and gravy, with a green salad served separately on a crescent shaped dish. The latter is placed at the top left-hand corner of the cover.