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FRACTURE, FAILURE AND FATIGUE Catastrophic failure in materials resulting from crack development. FRACTURE, FAILURE AND FATIGUE Catastrophic failure in materials resulting from crack development Fracture mechanics Failure analysis. Rail track performance. Gauge corner cracking.

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## FRACTURE, FAILURE AND FATIGUE Catastrophic failure in materials resulting from crack development

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**FRACTURE, FAILURE AND FATIGUE**• Catastrophic failure in materials resulting from • crack development**FRACTURE, FAILURE AND FATIGUE**• Catastrophic failure in materials resulting from • crack development • Fracture mechanics • Failure analysis**Rail track performance**Gauge corner cracking**FATIGUE FAILURE**• Comet airliner disasters of 1954**GRIFFITH FRACTURE THEORY**• A A Griffith’s work (around 1920) on the tensile strength of glass fibres is a classic of materials science. • See J E Gordon The new science of strong materials • [several editions] for an excellent popular account**Griffith Alan Arnold**1893-1963 Griffith: Phil Trans Roy Soc 1921, v221, 163-198**GRIFFITH FRACTURE THEORY**• Griffith found • tensile strength of freshly drawn glass fibres is much greater than that of old or aged fibres**GRIFFITH FRACTURE THEORY**• Griffith found • tensile strength of freshly drawn glass fibres is much greater than that of old or aged fibres • tensile strength decreased with fibre length**GRIFFITH FRACTURE THEORY**• Griffith found • tensile strength of freshly drawn glass fibres is much greater than that of old or aged fibres • tensile strength decreased with fibre length • tensile strength is very variable from sample to sample … much statistical variance**GRIFFITH FRACTURE THEORY**• Griffith concluded that • fibres are weakened by microscopic flaws on the surface or the interior of the fibre • … and more generally in brittle materials of any kind**GRIFFITH FRACTURE THEORY**• Stress concentration around a hole or cavity**Uniaxial tensile stress**S -S 3**GRIFFITH FRACTURE THEORY**• Stress concentration around a hole or cavity**GRIFFITH FRACTURE THEORY**• Stress concentration around a hole or cavity**GRIFFITH FRACTURE THEORY**• Griffith then considered the stress distribution around a crack • The steps in the argument are: • In a material under stress, stress increases in the vicinity of a crack • The crack may be stable or unstable • The condition for stability can be written down in terms of the strain energy recovered and surface energy of the crack**GRIFFITH FRACTURE THEORY**• In brittle materials, catastrophic crack propagation • when critical stress is exceeded at crack tip**GRIFFITH FRACTURE THEORY**• In brittle materials, catastrophic crack propagation • when critical stress is exceeded at crack tip • In non-brittle (TOUGH) materials, local stress concentrations can be relieved by plasticity/yield**GRIFFITH FRACTURE THEORY**• In brittle materials, catastrophic crack propagation • when a critical stress is exceeded at crack tip • In non-brittle (TOUGH) materials, local stress concentrations can be relieved by plasticity/yield • TOLERANCE OF DEFECTS, FLAWS, CRACKS, • NOTCHES**FATIGUE**• Failure of materials subject to CYCLIC or REPETITIVE loading**S/N curve**Wöhler curve**For complex stress loadings:**Miner’s Rule [Palmgren-Miner] Linear cumulative damage hypothesis**Fatigue striations in aluminium alloy**Callister**GRIFFITH FRACTURE THEORY**• In brittle materials, catastrophic crack propagation • when critical stress is exceeded at crack tip • In non-brittle (TOUGH) materials, local stress concentrations can be relieved by plasticity/yield**GRIFFITH FRACTURE THEORY**• In brittle materials, catastrophic crack propagation • when a critical stress is exceeded at crack tip • In non-brittle (TOUGH) materials, local stress concentrations can be relieved by plasticity/yield • TOLERANCE OF DEFECTS, FLAWS, CRACKS, • NOTCHES

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