Jan 13 - Parliament Agenda: • Notes: Parliament • PMQT HW: • Finish the UK Chapter Take out: • Notes • Pen/Pencil • Queens Speech Worksheet
Parliament • The Westminster Model • In the 1200’s Parliament became the official gathering of feudal barons summoned by the King whenever he required their consent to special taxes • By the 15th century they gained the right to make laws
The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Assembled • Only power to delay legislation: • Suspensive veto • A chamber of revision • Types of Peers (618 seats) • Law Lords – until 2009 • Life Peers (appointed by the Crown on recommendation of the PM) • Hereditary Peers • Church of England • Cross Benchers
Parliament Explained 5: Debates in Parliament. London: Parliament, 2007. Printed Resources. Parliament Education Service, Mar. 2007. Web. 29 Dec. 2009. <http://www.parliament.uk/education/online-resources/printed-resources.htm>.
The Honorable Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament Assembled • 646 MPs • Called the Commons because MPs represent a commune or community • NOT because they are commoners • Each serves about 65,000 people in Single Member Districts • MPs serve a maximum of 5 years, but there isn’t a fixed election cycle • PM can dissolve Parliament • Technically the Crown does this
The Prime Minister (PM) • PM is the head of government • People don’t vote for the PM • Citizens vote for their MP in their district • David Cameron represents Witney • Majority Party of Parliament picks the PM • Presidential (US, Sep of pwr) v. Parliamentary (UK, Fusion of pwr) Witney shown within Oxfordshire, and Oxfordshire shown within England
The Cabinet • The cabinet contains the PM and roughly 2 dozen ministers • Ministers members from Parliament (Commons or Lords) • Fusion of Executive and Legislative powers • Not fixed positions or portfolio • Foreign Office (Sec St) • Home Office (AG) • Chancellor of the Exchequer (Treas)
What does it do? 1990-1997 1979-1990 1997-2006 • Key functions of the Cabinet: • Responsible for policy making • Supreme control of government • Coordination of all government departments • There is a collective responsibility • Checks on the power of PM/ Cabinet
House of Commons • Vote of No Confidence • Elections follow no-confidence or dissolution in one month • Backbenchers • MPs with little seniority – only seats for 346 • Shadow Cabinet • Safe Seat
House of Commons • Speaker • Chosen by majority after consultation with the minority • Doesn’t eat in the HoC dining room or attend official party functions • Similar to the monarchy in they are above the system
Press Gallery Speaker Backbenchers PM LO Clerks Shadow Cabinet Cabinet 2 swords-lengths apart Government Loyal Opposition
An Introduction to Parliament. London: Parliament, 2007. Printed Resources. Parliament Education Service. Web. 29 Dec. 2009. <http://www.parliament.uk/education/online-resources/printed-resources.htm>.
http://www.number10.gov.uk/number-10-tv • MPs submit to Speaker, shuffled. • Question #1 • Leader of Op – 6 • LibDems – 2
Whitehall: The brains of the operation (and the Bureaucracy) • The PM, Cabinet and senior level civil servants determine policy • Successful policy goals must be translated into policy • This is completed by half a million civil servants • draft legislation, prepare briefs, permanent secretaries • Labor created NPM (New Public Management) to streamline the Bureau • It is now more transparent, accountable and efficient In many countries such as Nigeria, personal connections and informal networks play a large role in policy making and implantation. How different is the British system? The US?
Judiciary Courts have NOT had judicial review (now, nonbinding) But 1 system for Scotland, 1 for England and Wales, another for Northern Ireland. Law Lords: Old final court of appeal Supreme Court of the UK – separated from the parliamentary process (Oct 09) Final court of appeal 12 independently appointed judges (Justices) Pressures from above (EU mostly) required the UK to look into this – European Convention on Human Rights especially
QUANGOs:Quasi Autonomous Non Governmental Organizations • They perform a specific function of the government (often at a very local level) • Unitary system! • Education, job training, health, housing • Take advantage of private-sector expertise and efficiency • Non-elected • Became popular in the 1970s and have increased in both scope and power • The point is to get all of the interested parties together at one table and create the rules • British Potato Council