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  1. Surprise Quiz Test dividers up One piece of paper No talking

  2. Review Quiz • When water dissociates what are the two types of ions that you will find? • Why is water a thermoregulator? • Oil does not dissolve in water. What is the scientific term for this? • How does salt dissociate in water? • What does a buffer do and how do you make one?

  3. Organic vs. Inorganic • Organic molecules have carbon as the central atom • There are some inorganic molecules that contain carbon • CO2 CO CaCO3

  4. Monomer vs. Polymer • A monomer is a single unit or a single type of molecule • A Polymer is made up of many monomers

  5. Monomer Polymer Monosaccharide Polysaccahride Amino Acid Protein Nucleotides Nucleic Acid (DNA and RNA)

  6. CARBOHYDRATES • The basic formula for carbohydrates is H-C-OH • This is used for short-term energy • This is an example of a Monomer • This is glucose • This is a monosaccharide

  7. Carbohydrates • When two monomers come together they combine • Two monosaccharides come together and form a disaccharide

  8. Formation of a disaccharide H2O Two glucose molecules  Maltose

  9. Condensation Synthesis • Also called a dehydration synthesis • Its called synthesis because it makes something • This is when two monomers combine and then a water is released

  10. Hydrolysis reaction • This is the breakdown of large polymers into smaller monomers • Water is added to a polymer and it breaks up • Draw the hydrolysis reaction of a disaccharide

  11. Carbohydrate Polymers • Starch – This is a long chain of glucose that is found in plants. It has a few branches. Its used for food. • Glycogen – This is a long chain of glucose that is found in animals. It has many branches. Its used for food. • Cellulose – This is a long chain of glucose found in plants. It is linked differently and has no branches. It is used for structure and support

  12. Starch Cellulose Glycogen

  13. Starch- this forms a bond between the first carbon and the 4th carbon • Glycogen- this forms a bond between the first carbon and either the 4th carbon or the 6th carbon. This makes it very branched • Cellulose- this forms a bond between the first carbon and the 4th carbon. However each glucose is flipped

  14. Lipids • Lipids are types of fats and oils • They do not dissolve in water • Oil is found in plants • Fat is found in animals • Fat is used for • Insulation from the cold • Protective cushion for organs • Used for long term energy storage

  15. Condensation Synthesis

  16. Condensation of Lipids + 3H2O This is called a Neutral Fat. When a glycerol bonds with three fatty acids

  17. Neutral Fats • Neutral fats are fats that are on a persons waist or legs • They are called neutral fats because they are non-polar and have no charge • Some fats are polar and do have a charge. One of these are called phospholipids

  18. Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids • Saturated fatty acid – this is a fatty acid with no double bonds present • Unsaturated fatty acid– This is a fatty acid with double bonds present

  19. phospholipid

  20. Phospholipids • These are found in cells • They are what create the outside of a cell

  21. Fatty Acid Chains Polar Head

  22. Hydrogen bonds form between the phospholipid "heads" and the watery environment inside and outside of the cell • Hydrophobic interactions force the "tails" to face inward • Phospholipids are not bonded to each other, which makes the double layer fluid

  23. Steroids • All steroids have 4 carbon rings that are attached This is the basic steroid backbone. There are many types of steroids but they all have this backbone

  24. Steroids • On a test you may see a picture of a steroid like this

  25. Steroids

  26. Proteins • They have structural functions • Ex. Bone, nails, hair, ligaments, tendons, muscles • Some are enzymes • Enzymes speed chemical reactions • Some enzymes break up starch and some break up other proteins • There are many different enzymes

  27. Proteins • Proteins are made up of Amino Acids • The condensation synthesis of many amino acids makes proteins

  28. Amino Acid • Amino acids are the monomer of proteins • All have carboxylic acid side and a amine side NH2 is the amine side. It is the Basic side The “R” group. Different for every amino acid COOH is the Carboxylic Acid Side

  29. Draw the condensation synthesis of two amino acids

  30. Also called a Peptide Bond

  31. Peptide Bonds • When two amino acids are bonded together it is called a dipeptide • When there are many amino acids bonded together its called a polypeptide

  32. Primary Structure • Proteins are many amino acids joined together • This is called primary structure

  33. Secondary structure • The polypeptide folds and twists and forms hydrogen bonds with itself • This is called secondary structure

  34. Tertiary Structures • After the secondary structure forms the “R” groups form covalent bonds with each other • An example of an “R” group bond is the S-S bond also called the disulphide bond

  35. Quaternary Structure • When multiple polypeptides come together they form a larger protein. This is Quaternary structure We can see two polypeptides together

  36. Quaternary Structure • Hemoglobin is a protein that is in blood cells • They have Fe2+ in the protein and this is what makes blood red

  37. Nucleic Acid • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) are nucleic acid polymers • Nucleotides are the monomers • Nucleotide is made up of a Pentose sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogen containing base • There are 5 types of nitrogen containing bases. • Adenine (A) • Thymine (T) • Guanine (G) • Cytosine (C) • Uracil (U)

  38. DNA double helix • Hydrogen bonds is what holds the double helix together • They form from complimentary base pairs • Thymine -- Adenine  2 hydrogen bonds • Guanine -- Cytosine  3 hydrogen bonds

  39. Differences between DNA and RNA • They both have a Sugar and Phosphate Backbone • However RNA used Ribose for its sugar and DNA uses Deoxyribose Sugar – Phosphate Backbone Nitrogen containing Bases

  40. DNA is double stranded or a Double Helix • RNA is a single strand no helix

  41. DNA uses the nitrogen containing bases • Adenine • Thymine • Guanine • Cytosine • RNA uses the nitrogen containing bases • Adenine • Uracil • Guanine • Cytosine

  42. ATP • ATP  Adenosine Triphosphate • Adenine + Ribose sugar + 3 phosphates • Glucose has too much energy so it is converted into ATP molecules 3 Phosphates Adenine Ribose

  43. When ATP releases energy it turns into ADP which is called Adenosine diphosphate • One bond is broken and this releases a lot of energy

  44. The energy released from ATP is used by your body to make things like proteins or other polymers • ATP is also used by your muscles to make them move

  45. Review for the Test • Chapter 2 questions • Page 43 questions 1 to 12