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Human Resource Development & Industry University Interaction: Indian Experience. K J Joseph & Dinesh Abrol CDS & NISTADS email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org. An Overview. Introduction- Sectoral system for HRD? The Evolution: Historical Background
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Human Resource Development & Industry University Interaction: Indian Experience K J Joseph & Dinesh Abrol CDS & NISTADS email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org
An Overview Introduction- Sectoral system for HRD? • The Evolution: • Historical Background • Post-independence: Three Phases • The Performance • Academia- Industry Interaction • Concluding observation
Evolution:Pre-independence Period • India - the home of centers of learning • Three distinct traditions of scholarships • Hindu gurukulas, the Buddhist viharas, and the Quranic madarasas • Modern education - Network of schools and colleges to impart western education in English by the British in the early 19th century - The first college for western education -1818 at Serampore near Calcutta • Later a number of colleges Agra, Bombay, Madras, Nagpur, Patna, Calcutta, and Nagapattinam. • In 1857, three universities were set up at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras and the 27 colleges were affiliated to them • By 1947 there were 19 universities and several affiliated colleges
Post Independence Period- Three Phases • Early phase (till c1980) state domination • HRD has been considered important • Institutions • University Grant Commission (1956) set by the Act of parliament coordinates and regulates higher education • All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) set up in 1945 as an advisory body was given a statutory status through an Act of Parliament in 1987 • The main functions of the AICTE include proper planning and coordinated development of technical education in the country, promotion of qualitative improvement regulation and maintenance of norms and standards. • In order to ensure planned growth of technical education, the Council operates the scheme of National Technical Manpower Information System (NTMIS) • The objective of this scheme is to generate a database to monitor supply and demand of engineering and technical manpower and to ensure planned development of technical education.
Post Independence Period- First Phase • Two strategies- • First setting up of institutions by state • ‘based on Sarkar committee’ (1945) six IITs were set up during 1950-61) • These institutes impart high quality education in various areas of pure and applied sciences and in engineering and technology at the under-graduate and post-graduate levels and disseminate and transfer the knowledge for the benefit of Indian industry and the other user sectors. • Second, Grant in aid Institutions (PPP mode) are regulated by UGC or AICTE • Indian Institute of Science at Bangalore and Indian Agricultural Research Institute at Delhi were declared as deemed to be universities in 1958
Post Independence Period: Second Phase • Second Phase (1980-2000) entry and expansion of private sector • The national policy on education (1986) called for improvement in education • Increased demand along with budget constraint of the state and changing policy regime set the stage for the entry of private sector • Autonomous colleges • Distance education providers • Self-financing courses in public institutions • Accreditation and & assessment councils
Post Independence: Third Phase • Third Phase – since 2000 Further boost to privatization and entry of foreign universities • Between 2000 and 2005, 26 private-sponsored institutions got the deemed university status. • By early 2005, seven private universities were set up in different states were recognized by the UGC. • By 2005, 131 foreign education providers were identified to be operating in India
Course Number of Institutions Percentage increase Private (%) 2003/04 1999/2000 2005/06 Engineering 669 1478 121 88 Pharmacy 204 629 208 94 Hotel Management 41 70 70 90 Architecture 78 118 51 67 Teacher Education 1050 5190 395 68 MCA 780 976 25 62 MBA 682 1052 55 64 Medicine (Allopathic) 174 229 32 46 Physiotherapy 52 205 294 92 Total 3730 9947 167 78 Growth of professional higher education institutions since 1999
Major Actors • The institutes of national importance & public research labs • Affiliating universities and various university departments, affiliated colleges and regional engineering colleges under them • Deemed universities • Private institutes • Govt Polytechnics, Pvt Polytechnics .
An array of Institutional arrangements for promotion & regulation • University Grants Commission (UGC) -Funding, recognition & maintaining overall standards • All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)- Approval for technical institutions, and limited funding & quality improvement • Indian Council for Agricultural Research • Distance Education Council -IGNOU Act Funding, maintaining standards of open education • Council of Architects (CoA) - Registration of architects and recognition of institutions for education in architecture and town planning • Medical Council of India - Registration of medical practitioners and recognition of medical institutions and qualifications • Pharmacy Council of India: Indian Nursing Council (INC): Dental Council of India: Central Council of Homeopathy (CCH)
Institutions (in ‘000s) Enrolment (in millions) Teachers (in ‘000s) Primary Middle Sec* Primary Middle Sec* Primary Middle Sec* 1950-51 209.7 13.6 7.4 19.3 3.1 1.5 538 86 127 1960-61 330.4 49.7 17.3 34.9 6.7 3.4 742 345 296 1970-71 408.4 90.6 37.1 57.1 13.3 7.6 1060 638 629 1980-81 494.5 118.6 51.5 73.8 20.7 11.0 1363 851 926 1990-91 560.9 151.5 79.8 97.4 34.0 19.1 1616 1073 1334 2000-01 638.7 206.3 126.0 113.8 42.8 27.6 1896 1326 1761 2003-04 712.2 262.3 145.9 128.3 48.7 35.0 2097 1592 2024 Educational Institutions, Enrolment and Teachers at different levels- Impressive performance
1998/99 2002/03 1998/99 2002/03 World total 60 65 Developing 52 58 Developed 100 107 China 70 70 U.S.A 97 94 India* 32 37 Canada 105 105 Indonesia 51 61 U.K. 157 179 Philippines 76 84 Australia 155 154 Malaysia 69 70 Japan 102 102 Mexico 69 79 Korea 100 91 S Africa 90 88 But not impressive- when compared (secondary enrolment)
Enrolment in Engineering/Technology/ Architecture (total & girls)(Graduate+postgraduates + doctorates)
Industry-HEIs interaction • Type1: HEIs as teaching centres supplying the needed skilled manpower • Type 2: HEIs university graduates to research - basic research for publication • Type 3: undertaking applied research and some preliminary technology development and supply of know-how and know why to industry • Type 4: Consultancy work for industry and students spend a part of their learning period with the industry - feed back from industry shapes the research agenda of academia as well as the curriculum itself • Type 5: HEIs become instrumental in the promotion of academic entrepreneurs or university-spawned industries.
The present status in India • Most HEIs are of Type 1 or Type 2 • A small proportion in Type 3 • A very small proportion and the premier institutes are in Type 4 • A very few universities are experimenting with the idea of setting up enterprises • The movement along the passive-proactive continuum does not take place uniformly in all industries or in all universities or over night. • Case study of an IIT – not very encouraging • Yet Shanta Bio Tech- and Osmania university – Hepatitis B vaccine - • Some recent initiatives: UGC-Nasscom
The present market induced approach… • State support is being withdrawn from everywhere, in particular the social sector activities including higher education and research. • Therefore, the academic system is made to increasingly depend on the industrial sector for finance • For industrial sector firms are realizing that it is well-nigh impossible to compete using imported technology when those very TNCs are competitors of local firms in both foreign and home markets.
Emerging issues Very limited interaction between Research institutes/ labs and Universities • Limited interface between industries/users and universities • While there is limited networking among local agents, There is a growing networking between local actors and foreign actors (MNCs) through R&D outsourcing; What are its implications? • While the investment in human capital in the early years have paid rich dividend, the current initiatives may not be sufficient to sustain the innovation in the economy.
S&T Manpower • While India has a large strength of S&T personnel of over 6.3 million, the number of scientists actually engaged in R&D is only about 150,000. • R&D manpower density lowest, virtually no increase, in fact GRI & PSU account for 80 % of 96 as opposed to 75% of 91 • More science graduates than engineers, lack of availability of R&D engineers, Science PhDs are 12 times of engineering PhDs, average is 0.6-0.8
Individual linkages of S&T manpower • Professionals graduating from the AIs exhibit an outward orientation and their linkages with the domestic industry are still low • Brain drain, Indian born S&E top the list of foreign born S&E in the US; • Weak linkage with manpower demand development, quality control mechanism
S&T Manpower • Enrolment in S&E is quite low, • Growing obsolescence of facilities, faculty & curricula • Private investment limited to professional courses • Rote learning, weak linkages with practice, lack of emphasis on problem-solving skills
Changes in the conditions of academic profession • Working conditions have deteriorated, despite increased teaching load, constantly demands have been made that teachers should teach to more students and for longer hours • The privatization of public higher education and the expansion of private academic institutions • Decreased autonomy; financial pressures have contributed to ever-increasing demands of “accountability”, addition of several new functions; relations with industry, consultancy • Unrelenting criticism in media, it is very often bordering on virtual vilification of the academic profession as a whole
Pattern of R&D Personnel Employed by Industry • As on 1st April, 2000, 53,408 personnel were employed in 1326 industrial sector R&D units of which 34724 were engaged directly on R&D activities. This works out to be a figure of about 18% of total R&D manpower employed in all the R&D establishments in the country. • Of the total R&D personnel in industry sector 25.6% were employed in public sector, 74.4% were employed in private sector.
Composition of R&D Personnel by Type of Work in Public & Private Sector Industry • Private sector R&D manpower ; R&D: Auxiliary: Adm • 80-81 67 22 11 • 2000 65 23 12 • Nature of publicly directed funding for enterprise RDD
CAGR in the out turn of scientific & technical personnel from universities