Human-Computer Interaction Emotional Design Slides from Terry Winograd’s class: CS147 - Introduction to Human-Computer Interaction Design Computer Science Department Stanford University Autumn 2006
Learning Goals • How does affect play a role in human-computer interaction? • …in design? • …in anthropomorphic devices like robots?
Norman Levels of Design • Visceral – first impression • Behavioral • Reflective • Affect and Emotion • Affect is the basic human feeling behavior • Emotion involves perception and memory and always includes an environmental factor, present or past
Hiroshi Ishii’s Music Bottles • Physical feel – Haptic feedback and tangibility
Game design • Overall sensory look and feel • Music and sound effects • Emotions are the key drivers • Fear, Sex, Aggression,…. • Haptic/tangible (e.g,. For driving games)
Reflective Level: Message, culture, meaning • Personal remembrances • Self image • Watches as an example
Visceral vs. Reflective • Attractiveness is a visceral-level phenomenon • Beauty comes from the reflective level • Sexy, powerful, seductive – visceral level • Prestige, rarity, exclusiveness – reflective level How does this apply to interaction design?
Affective Interactive Toys Aibo NeCoRo Furby Tamagotchi
Paro: World's Most Therapeutic Robot • World's Most Therapeutic Robot"Mental Commit Robot"Nickname: "Paro"
Emotional Machines • What are emotions? • Emotion as an attribution that explains behavior • States of readiness • Emotions allow us to translate intelligence into action Does your car have emotions?
Human-Robot interaction • Anthropomorphism and expectations • The uncanny valley • Displaying the machine’s emotional state • Facial expressions • Fake vs. real emotions
Machines Assessing People’s Emotional State • Facial expression • Physiological signals • (blood pressure, galvanic skin response, facial expression....) How and when should machines respond to your affect?
Affective Computing (Rosalind Picard, MIT) Blood Volume Pressure (BVP) earring Galvanic SkinResponse (GSR) rings and bracelet
Manipulating Affect and Motivation • Captology is the study of computers as persuasive technologies. This includes the design, research, and analysis of interactive computing products created for the purpose of changing people's attitudes or behaviors. BJ Fogg, Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do
Social Interface: Learning Goals • Be aware of the challenges of socio-technical design • Understand the nature and importance of the “social interface” that goes with the visible interface • Be able to apply social analysis in interface design
Social Interface (Spolsky) • When you're writing software that mediates between people, after you get the usability right, you have to get the social interface right. And the social interface is more important. • The best UI in the world won't save software with an awkward social interface.
Aspects of the Social Interface • Adoption • Critical mass - network effects • Social group development, maintenance • (Community building) • Usage modes • Repurposing and workaround • Social Concerns • Identity formation, maintenance • Power • Privacy • Behavioral norms • Cultural differences (local and global)
Applications with Strongly Social Interfaces • CSCW/Groupware • Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) • Dialog (Active) • Awareness (Passive) • Mediated Sociability • On-line communities, Virtual worlds • Peer-to-peer networking • Multi-player games
Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW - Groupware) • Coordination Mechanisms • Physically embodied vs. mediated • Shared external representations (calendars, bulletin boards) • Managed control (CVS, Subversion,…) • Embodied work practices (Business Process Management) • Concerns: • Issues of control and power • Explicitness of communication • Symmetry, reciprocity • Asymmetry of cost/benefit (Grudin Groupware and Social Dynamics)
CSCW Example: Group Calendaring • Concerns: Privacy vs. efficiency • Norms: Cultural expectations • Organizations have different cultures about whether your public schedule accurately reflects your availability and whether other people can schedule times for you
CSCW Example: The Coordinator (1984) Converse menu from The Coordinator Menu for responding to a request
The Coordinator • Messaging system based on Speech Act / Conversation theory • Language as action vs. language as description • Declaring vs. inferring speech acts • Constraints on action (implicit and explicit) • Reception: • “Throwing it over the cubicle wall” • “Missionary software” “Fascist software” • But…. Integration into business practice training • Concerns: • Over-formalization – loss of ambiguity • Misuse of accountability/commitment
Technology-Mediated Sociability • Changes social affordances for conversational mechanisms • Email • Groups • Instant messaging (AIM, YIM, MSN) • Mobile Phones • Text messaging/SMS • Blog, LiveJournal, Xanga, etc. • Friendster, MySpace, Tribe.net, etc. • Advantage of text messaging (Spolsky) • …to express certain things you dare not to say
Case study: Videophone • Audio/Video interaction • Capture natural cues (e.g., gesture, orientation, gaze) • Natural interaction (Just like being there, but not quite) • In 1964, AT&T showed off the first video phone at the World's Fair in New York. • Socio-technical difficulties • Camera angle/range of visibility • Visibility awareness • Privacy • Eye gaze [Virtual Auditorium] • Audio pickup • Image and sound quality • Desire for symmetry/reciprocity • VSee
Peer-to-peer Applications • Newsgroups, forums, … • File Sharing: Napster, BitTorrent…. • Selling and buying: Craig’s list, EBay • Blogging • Wikis: Wikipedia,…
Example: On-line discussion/interaction • Structure • Threaded vs. linear vs. random access • (Newsgroup vs. email lists vs. Wiki) • Primary voice vs. collective • (Blog vs. group) • Behavioral norms
Social behavior (Spolsky) • Behavioral norms: • Antisocial behavior • LambdaMoo: A Rape in Cyberspace Julian Dibbell, Village Voice, 1993 • With social interface engineering, you have to look at sociology and anthropology. In societies, there are freeloaders, scammers, and other miscreants. In social software, there will be people who try to abuse the software for their own profit at the expense of the rest of the society. Unchecked, this leads to something economists call the tragedy of the commons.
Mediated Presence: Portholes Xerox EuroPARC 1992
Mediated Presence • Concerns: • Privacy • Symmetry • Awareness of visibility • Media differences • Audio/video • Immediacy • Imposed limitations
Social Network Applications • Orkut, Facebook, LinkedIn, Friendster,…. • Mobile: Dodgeball, …
Adoption • Friendster: www.friendster.com • Friendster is a leading global social network emphasizing genuine friendships and the discovery of new people through friends. • Viral Spread based on urban tribes, subcultures, queers and techies • Gay men & Burning Man -> Asia • Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines • Orkut: • Orkut is a social networking service which is run by Google and named after its creator, an employee of Google - Orkut Büyükkökten. • The United States has at least 153 million Internet users, compared with Brazil's 20 million. Still, Orkut said Brazilians dominated its membership roster …. About 23.5 percent of the users are from the United States, while another 41.2 percent are Brazilians. Iranians are a distant third place at about 6 percent.
Difficulty in Support for Social Interaction Algorithm to suggest people you should meet, based on number of common friends …but…
What are Fakesters? • Cultural Characters (God, salt, Homer Simpson) • Community Characters (Brown University, Burning Man, Chicago) • Characters meant to be real (teachers, TV personas)
Repurposing • Usage Patterns on Friendster (from danah boyd) • Created for Dating… • Direct pestering, Familiar Strangers, Hookups • Ego/Friend Surfing • Friends’ Profiles reflect you • People searching (the past, headhunters) • Permanent representations (upon death) • Play and Social Maintenance • Fakesters and Fraudsters • Trouble Making • From drug distribution -> Neo-Nazis
Friendster • Friendster… was developed as a dating site. The expected usage scenario was simple: get people to map out their social network so that single people could be introduced to other single people in a trusted environment. • What was successful about Friendster had nothing to do with its original purpose or design. Instead, users saw it as a flexible artifact that they could repurpose to reflect their social practices. • The simplicity of Friendster allowed it to be repurposed over and over again. Its popularity did not validate its underlying model, articulated social networks or the values embedded in the technology. Its success validated that people love flexible artifacts that allow them to reflect on themselves and their social situation.
Mobile Social Software • How will mobile social software change existing social dynamics? • How will location services and other new technologies change the game? • What are the privacy risks and research challenges of these technologies? • Next generation of mobile social software: What is it and when will we have it?