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The Second Feudal Age (950-1350 AD). -Key Concepts-. I. Similarities to First Feudal Age. Continuation of feudalism -- “public authority in private hands” Continued economic importance of manorialism Continued importance of feudal relationships Centrality of the Church to medieval culture.

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The second feudal age 950 1350 ad l.jpg

The Second Feudal Age(950-1350 AD)

-Key Concepts-


I similarities to first feudal age l.jpg
I. Similarities to First Feudal Age

  • Continuation of feudalism

    -- “public authority in private hands”

  • Continued economic importance of manorialism

  • Continued importance of feudal relationships

  • Centrality of the Church to medieval culture



A reduction in violence l.jpg
A. Reduction in Violence

  • Magyars defeated in 955 and begin to settle in what will be Hungary

  • Infighting among Muslims

  • Vikings simply stop marauding and settle down


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A. Reduction in Violence (cont)

  • Walls built around towns

  • Dominance of Siege Warfare

  • Church attempts to “tame” warfare

    -- “peace of God”

    -- “truce of God”


B agricultural revolution l.jpg
B. Agricultural Revolution

  • Improvement in climate

  • Population decline of previous centuries led to search for new technologies

    -- “carruca”

    --new yoke and harness system for draft animals

  • Seed yield shoots up=more food


B agricultural revolution cont l.jpg
B. Agricultural Revolution (cont)

  • Population increases promoting town growth

  • Tremendous search for more land

  • Serfs become free peasants paying rent

  • Agricultural specialization develops in regions


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C. Population Increase

  • Birth rate up and death rate down

  • European-wide population explosion

    --1100 AD = 42 million

    --1300 AD = 72 million

  • Regional population bursts

  • Between 1066 and the Black Death (1347-1351), the population of England, Scotland and Wales tripled to 5-6 million while the population of France grew to 20 million


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C. Population Increase

  • No major famines or plagues between 1000-1200 AD

  • Malaria and leprosy were the real medical problems of the era

  • More people for the lords to tax


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D. Aggressive, Optimistic Mentality

  • Aggressive approach to land reclamation

  • Peasants given freedom in exchange for bringing land under cultivation

  • The Crusades

  • Urban II calls for the First crusade in 1095

    -- “Reconquista”


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D. Aggressive, Optimistic Mentality (cont)

  • Varying motivations for participation in the Crusades

  • The Crusades justified by the Church as a “just war”

  • 8 Crusades and 2 Children’s Crusades in 1212

  • The First and Second Crusades


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D. Aggressive, Optimistic Mentality (cont)

  • The Third Crusade

    --King Richard I (“Lionhearted”) of England

    --King Phillip II Augustus of France

    --HRE Frederick Barbarossa of Germany

  • The Fourth through the Sixth Crusades


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Aggressive, Optimistic Mentality(cont)

  • The Children’s Crusades

  • Results of the Crusades for Italian towns and European Kings

  • First widespread attacks on European Jews

    --Peasants Crusade led by Peter the Hermit


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D. Aggressive, Optimistic Mentality (cont)

  • Western Europe became vulnerable to attack from the east

  • The power of women increased

  • Improved knowledge of engineering and fortification

  • Creation of military monastic orders

    --Hospitallers

    --Templars


E revival of town life l.jpg
E. Revival of Town Life

  • Origins of Town Development

  • Expanding of city walls

  • The original “suburbs”

  • Towns were a magnet for the unemployed

  • Key Italian cities surpassed a population of 100,000 by the mid-1200’s

  • Paris and London were at 50,000


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E. Revival of Town Life (cont)

  • Most cities numbered between 10,000-20,000

  • By 1300, 10% of the population of western Europe lived in cities

  • Towns were service centers for reemerging long distance trade and sources of money

  • Struggle for autonomy with lords


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E. Revival of Town Life (cont)

  • Origins of “Communes”: representative town government

  • Inter-city warfare in Italy

  • By the end of the 1200’s, most Italian cities were under despots

  • The exception = Florence and Venice

    --Medici family


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E. Revival of Town Life (cont)

  • Town Life– “a world of perpetual shade”

    -- “burg”

  • Problems of overcrowding

  • Regulation of businesses

  • Walls as psychological symbols

    -- “ghetto”

  • The value of citizenship


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E. Revival of Town Life (cont)

  • Great differences in social classes

  • Role of women in town life

  • Begging, prostitution, and law enforcement

  • Professional geographic diversity

  • Air pollution and water pollution

  • Life inside a towndweller’s home


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F. Revival of Long-Distance Trade

  • Medieval Guilds—obstacle to long-distance trade

    --three levels of skill in the crafts

    -- “just price theory”

  • Medieval Craft Fairs

  • Chief commodities traded

  • Regulation of Craft Fairs


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F. Revival of Long Distance Trade (cont)

  • Craft Fairs as town entertainment

  • Development of economic transactions

  • Funding of long-distance trade

  • Development of pre-modern banking system

  • Balance of trade problems at first

  • Towns ally with kings in the name of trade



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(1) Rise of the Medieval University

  • Origins of the Medieval University

  • The University of Bologna (1158)

  • The University of Paris

  • Medical Schools

  • Standard teaching method

    --summa

  • The “disputation” as an intellectual joust


1 rise of the medieval university cont l.jpg
(1) Rise of the Medieval University (cont)

  • Criticism of the teaching method

  • Religious foundations of university life

  • Granting of Degrees

  • The rigors of university academia

  • “Town versus Gown” conflict

  • Relationship to professors


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(1) Rise of the Medieval University (cont)

  • The Medieval University Curriculum

    -- trivium

    -- quadrennium

  • The violence of University Life

    --Origins of Cambridge (1209)


2 medieval scholasticism l.jpg
(2) Medieval Scholasticism

  • Origins of Scholasticism

  • Product of Twelfth-Century Renaissance

  • Champions of Scholasticism

    --Anselm

    --Peter Abelard

    --Sic et Non


2 medieval scholasticism cont l.jpg
(2) Medieval Scholasticism (cont)

  • Greatest Scholastic of all was Thomas Aquinas

    --Summa Theologica

    --Synthesis of Aristotle and Christianity

  • Critics of Scholasticism

    --Bernard of Clairvaux

    --William of Ockham and Duns Scotus


3 new christian art architecture and drama l.jpg
(3) New Christian Art, Architecture and Drama

  • New art emphasized Jesus’ humanity and the personal, emotional religious experience

  • Veneration of Mary

  • Woolen tapestries replace painted murals

  • Romanesque Church structures (11th and 12th centuries)


3 new christian art architecture and drama cont l.jpg
(3) New Christian Art, Architecture and Drama (cont)

  • Gothic Cathedrals (12th and 13th centuries)

  • Exterior construction techniques

  • Gothic style matched an energized Europe

  • Cathedrals as a source of civic pride—built by generations of city craftsmen


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(3) New Christian Art, Architecture, and Drama (cont)

  • City competition to build the highest Gothic Cathedral

  • The symbolism of cathedral interiors

  • The emergence of religious drama during the 13th century

    -- “mystery plays”


H religious reform l.jpg
H. Religious Reform

  • The growth of religious abuses

  • “Lay investiture” problems

  • The Cluniac Order (910)

    --1350 houses by 1000 AD

  • The Cistercian Order

  • The appearance of urban monastic orders


H religious reform cont l.jpg
H. Religious Reform (cont)

  • The Franciscan Order

  • The Dominican Order

  • The Carthusian Order

  • Dramatic increase in the number of women joining convents during the 12th century

  • The Waldensians

  • The reform of Papal elections in 1059


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H. Religious Reform (cont)

  • Papal reformer Gregory VII

    --lay investiture conflict with HRE Henry IV

    --Concordat of Worms (1122)

  • Innocent III and the zenith of papal power


H religious reform cont34 l.jpg
H. Religious Reform (cont)

  • Innocent III calls for a crusade against the Cathars in 1209

  • Inquisition introduced in 1226 to finish the work of this crusade

  • Sanctions Franciscan and Dominican orders

  • Innocent calls the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215



A the holy roman empire germany l.jpg
A. The Holy Roman Empire (Germany)

  • The view of kings as holy and untouchable

    -- “Divine right theory of kingship”

  • Original power of the HRE

  • Origins of political instability and fragmentation of monarchical power


A the holy roman empire cont l.jpg
A. The Holy Roman Empire (cont)

  • HRE seeks a power base outside of Germany in northern Italy and Sicily

  • Frederick I (Barbarossa)

  • Frederick II (1212-1250) was the first feudal monarch to establish a centralized administration and an army of soldiers paid in cash


B france l.jpg
B. France

  • Hugh Capet—the first French king after the end of the Carolingian dynasty (987)

  • Increasing power of monarchs over lords through time

  • Philip Augustus (1180-1223)

  • The reign of Louis IX (1226-1270)


B france cont l.jpg
B. France (cont)

  • Louis IX moral and religious authority

  • Age of scholasticism in Paris

  • Extension of royal justice through “Parlement”

  • Weakness of the Estates-General


C england l.jpg
C. England

  • King Alfred the Great (871-899)

  • More stable principle of succession

  • William the Conqueror (1066-1087)

    --The Battle of Hastings (1066)

  • Feudalism from the “top down”

  • The practice of “parleying”


C england cont l.jpg
C. England (cont)

  • The use of Anglo-Saxon officials to assert royal power on the local level

  • The “Domesday Book” (1086)

  • The rule of Henry I (1100-1135)

    --The Royal Exchequer

  • The rule of Henry II (1154-1189)


C england cont42 l.jpg
C. England (cont)

  • Judicial reform under Henry II

    -- “common law”

  • Henry II marries Eleanor of Aquitaine

  • Their subsequent divorce and political turmoil

  • Henry II conquered part of Ireland and made the King of Scotland his vassal


C england cont43 l.jpg
C. England (cont)

  • Henry II and his confrontation with Thomas Becket (1164-1170)

  • Richard I (“The Lionhearted”)

  • Richard’s brother King John

  • John’s conflict with Philip Augustus, King of France


C england cont44 l.jpg
C. England (cont)

  • John abuses his vassals to raise money for war with Philip

  • King John’s battle with his vassals at Runnymede (1215)

  • The Magna Carta (1215)

  • The first Parliament met in 1295

  • The roots of constitutional monarchy


Iv christians and jews l.jpg
IV. Christians and Jews

  • Origins of anti-Jewish sentiment in the Christian Church

  • Official church position on the Jews

  • Actual persecution of European Jews

  • Jewish expulsion from western Europe

  • Jewish theologians tried to harmonize faith with reason

    --Maimonides


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