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P R I N C I P L E S O F ECONOMICS T E N T H E D I T I O N. CASE FAIR OSTER. Prepared by: Fernando Quijano & Shelly Tefft. Lecture 6. The Money Supply and the Central Bank. CHAPTER OUTLINE. An Overview of Money What Is Money? Commodity and Fiat Monies

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Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

P R I N C I P L E S O F

ECONOMICS

T E N T H E D I T I O N

CASE FAIR OSTER

Prepared by: Fernando Quijano & Shelly Tefft


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

Lecture 6

The Money Supply and the Central Bank

CHAPTER OUTLINE

An Overview of Money

What Is Money?

Commodity and Fiat Monies

Measuring the Supply of Money in the United States

The Private Banking System

How Banks Create Money

A Historical Perspective: Goldsmiths

The Modern Banking System

The Creation of Money

The Money Multiplier

The Federal Reserve System

Functions of the Federal Reserve

Expanded Fed Activities Beginning in 2008

The Federal Reserve Balance Sheet

How the Federal Reserve Controls the Money Supply

The Required Reserve Ratio

The Discount Rate

Open Market Operations

Excess Reserves and the Supply Curve for Money

Looking Ahead


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

An Overview of Money

What Is Money?

Money is a means of payment, a store of value, and a unit of account.

A Means of Payment, or Medium of Exchange

barterThe direct exchange of goods and services for other goods and services.

medium of exchange, or means of payment What sellers generally accept and buyers generally use to pay for goods and services.


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

An Overview of Money

What Is Money?

A Store of Value

store of valueAn asset that can be used to transport purchasing power from one time period to another.

liquidity property of moneyThe property of money that makes it a good medium of exchange as well as a store of value: It is portable and readily accepted and thus easily exchanged for goods.

A Unit of Account

unit of account A standard unit that provides a consistent way of quoting prices.


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

An Overview of Money

Commodity and Fiat Monies

commodity moniesItems used as money that also have intrinsic value in some other use.

fiat, or token, moneyItems designated as money that are intrinsically worthless.

legal tenderMoney that a government has required to be accepted in settlement of debts.

currency debasementThe decrease in the value of money that occurs when its supply is increased rapidly.


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

E C O N O M I C S I N P R A C T I C E

Dolphin Teeth as Currency

In most countries commodity monies are not used anymore, but the world is a big place and there are exceptions.

In the Solomon Islands, dolphin teeth are being used as a means of payment and a store of value.

Note that even with a currency like dolphin teeth there is a concern about counterfeit currency, namely fruit-bat teeth, but also tooth decay.

Shrinking Dollar Meets Its Match in Dolphin Teeth

Wall Street Journal


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

An Overview of Money

Measuring the Supply of Money in the United States

M1: Transactions Money

M1, or transactions moneyMoney that can be directly used for transactions.

M1 ≡ currency held outside banks + demand deposits + traveler’s checks + other checkable deposits


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

An Overview of Money

Measuring the Supply of Money in the United States

M2: Broad Money

near moniesClose substitutes for transactions money, such as savings accounts and money market accounts.

M2, or broad moneyM1 plus savings accounts, money market accounts, and other near monies.

M2 ≡ M1 + savings accounts + money market accounts + other near monies


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

An Overview of Money

Measuring the Supply of Money in the United States

Beyond M2

There are no rules for deciding what is and is not money.

This poses problems for economists and those in charge of economic policy.


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

An Overview of Money

The Private Banking System

financial intermediariesBanks and other institutions that act as a link between those who have money to lend and those who want to borrow money.

The main types of financial intermediaries are commercial banks, followed by savings and loan associations, life insurance companies, and pension funds.


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

How Banks Create Money

A Historical Perspective: Goldsmiths

run on a bankOccurs when many of those who have claims on a bank (deposits) present them at the same time.

Today’s bankers differ from goldsmiths—today’s banks are subject to a “required reserve ratio.”

Goldsmiths had no legal reserve requirements, although the amount they loaned out was subject to the restriction imposed on them by their fear of running out of gold.


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

How Banks Create Money

The Modern Banking System

A Brief Review of Accounting

Assets − Liabilities ≡ Net Worth

or

Assets ≡ Liabilities + Net Worth

Federal Reserve Bank (the Fed)The central bank of the United States.

reservesThe deposits that a bank has at the Federal Reserve bank plus its cash on hand.

required reserve ratioThe percentage of its total deposits that a bank must keep as reserves at the Federal Reserve.


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

How Banks Create Money

The Modern Banking System

A Brief Review of Accounting

 FIGURE 25.1 T-Account for a Typical Bank (millions of dollars)

The balance sheet of a bank must always balance, so that the sum of assets (reserves and loans) equals the sum of liabilities (deposits and net worth).


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

How Banks Create Money

The Creation of Money

excess reserves The difference between a bank’s actual reserves and its required reserves.

excess reserves ≡ actual reserves − required reserves

 FIGURE 25.2 Balance Sheets of a Bank in a Single-Bank Economy

In panel 2, there is an initial deposit of $100.

In panel 3, the bank has made loans of $400.


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

How Banks Create Money

The Creation of Money

 FIGURE 25.3 The Creation of Money When There Are Many Banks

In panel 1, there is an initial deposit of $100 in bank 1. In panel 2, bank 1 makes a loan of $80 by creating a deposit of $80. A check for $80 by the borrower is then written on bank 1 (panel 3) and deposited in bank 2 (panel 1). The process continues with bank 2 making loans and so on.

In the end, loans of $400 have been made and the total level of deposits is $500.


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

How Banks Create Money

The Money Multiplier

An increase in bank reserves leads to a greater than one-for-one increase in the money supply.

Economists call the relationship between the final change in deposits and the change in reserves that caused this change the money multiplier.

money multiplierThe multiple by which deposits can increase for every dollar increase in reserves; equal to 1 divided by the required reserve ratio.


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

The Federal Reserve System

 FIGURE 25.4 The Structure of the Federal Reserve System


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

CENTRAL BANK OF THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY

(Türkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankası)

Head Office

İstiklal Cad. 10 Ulus, 06100 Ankara, Turkey

Phone : (90 312) 507 5000

World Wide Web Home Page : http://www.tcmb.gov.tr

Ownership : Established as a joint-stock company, majority of shares belonging to Treasury (55.12 %)

Type of Operation : Central Bank

Number of Employees : ~4960

GOVERNOR

Dr. Erdem Başçı


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

The Federal Reserve System

Functions of the Federal Reserve

From a macroeconomic point of view, the Fed’s crucial role is to control the money supply.

The Fed also performs several important functions for banks, such as clearing interbank payments, regulating the banking system, and assisting banks in a difficult financial position.

The Fed is also responsible for managing exchange rates and the nation’s foreign exchange reserves.

It is often involved in intercountry negotiations on international economic issues.

lender of last resort One of the functions of the Fed: It provides funds to troubled banks that cannot find any other sources of funds.


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

The Federal Reserve System

Expanded Fed Activities Beginning in 2008

When housing prices began to fall in late 2005, the stage was set for a worldwide financial crisis, which essentially began in 2008.

There has been much political discussion of whether the Fed should have regulated more in 2003–2005 and whether it should be intervening in the private sector as much as it has been doing.

It is certainly the case that the Fed has taken a much more active role in financial markets since 2008.


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

The Federal Reserve System

The Federal Reserve Balance Sheet


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

How the Federal Reserve Controls the Money Supply

  • If the Fed wants to increase the supply of money, it creates more reserves, thereby freeing banks to create additional deposits by making more loans. If it wants to decrease the money supply, it reduces reserves.

  • Three tools are available to the Fed for changing the money supply:

  • Changing the required reserve ratio.

  • Changing the discount rate.

  • Engaging in open market operations.



Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

How the Federal Reserve Controls the Money Supply

The Required Reserve Ratio

Decreases in the required reserve ratio allow banks to have more deposits with the existing volume of reserves.

As banks create more deposits by making loans, the supply of money (currency + deposits) increases.

The reverse is also true: If the Fed wants to restrict the supply of money, it can raise the required reserve ratio, in which case banks will find that they have insufficient reserves and must therefore reduce their deposits by “calling in” some of their loans.

The result is a decrease in the money supply.


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

How the Federal Reserve Controls the Money Supply

The Discount Rate

discount rateThe interest rate that banks pay to the Fed to borrow from it.

moral suasionThe pressure that in the past the Fed exerted on member banks to discourage them from borrowing heavily from the Fed.



Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

How the Federal Reserve Controls the Money Supply

Open Market Operations

open market operationsThe purchase and sale by the Fed of government securities in the open market; a tool used to expand or contract the amount of reserves in the system and thus the money supply.

Two Branches of Government Deal in Government Securities

The Treasury Department is responsible for collecting taxes and paying the federal government’s bills.

The Fed is not the Treasury. It is a quasi-independent agency authorized by Congress to buy and sell outstanding (preexisting) U.S. government securities on the open market.


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

How the Federal Reserve Controls the Money Supply

Open Market Operations

The Mechanics of Open Market Operations


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

How the Federal Reserve Controls the Money Supply

Open Market Operations

The Mechanics of Open Market Operations

We can sum up the effect of these open market operations this way:

■ An open market purchase of securities by the Fed results in an increase in reserves and an increase in the supply of money by an amount equal to the money multiplier times the change in reserves.

■ An open market sale of securities by the Fed results in a decrease in reserves and a decrease in the supply of money by an amount equal to the money multiplier times the change in reserves.


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

How the Federal Reserve Controls the Money Supply

Excess Reserves and the Supply Curve for Money

 FIGURE 25.5 The Supply of Money

If the Fed’s money supply behavior is not influenced by the interest rate, the money supply curve is a vertical line.

Through its three tools, the Fed is assumed to have the money supply be whatever value it wants.


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

Looking Ahead

This chapter has discussed only the supply side of the money market.

In the next chapter, we turn to the demand side of the money market.

We will examine the demand for money and see how the supply of and demand for money determine the equilibrium interest rate.


Prepared by fernando quijano shelly tefft

moral suasion

near monies

Open Market Desk

open market operations

required reserve ratio

reserves

run on a bank

store of value

unit of account

1. M1 ≡ currency held outside banks + demand deposits + traveler’s checks + other checkable deposits

2. M2 ≡ M1 + savings accounts + money market accounts + other near monies

3. Assets ≡ Liabilities + Net Worth

4. Excess reserves ≡ actual reserves − required reserves

5. Money multiplier ≡

R E V I E W T E R M S A N D C O N C E P T S

barter

commodity monies

currency debasement

discount rate

excess reserves

Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC)

Federal Reserve Bank (the Fed)

fiat, or token, money

financial intermediaries

legal tender

lender of last resort

liquidity property of money

M1, or transactions money

M2, or broad money

medium of exchange, or means of payment

money multiplier