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  1. Transmission Media Amandeep Singh Computer Science Department,PCTE

  2. Transmission Media • Guided Media • Unguided Media The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 WCB/McGraw-Hill

  3. Figure 7-2 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 WCB/McGraw-Hill

  4. Figure 7-3 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 WCB/McGraw-Hill

  5. Figure 7-4 and 7-5 Twisted-Pair Cable The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 WCB/McGraw-Hill

  6. Figure 7-6 Effect of Noise on Parallel Lines The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 WCB/McGraw-Hill

  7. Figure 7-7 Noise on Twisted-Pair Lines The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 WCB/McGraw-Hill

  8. Figure 7-4 and 7-5 Twisted-Pair Cable • The bandwidth depends on the thickness of the wire and the distance traveled, but several megabits/sec can be achieved for a few kilometers in many cases • Category 3 twisted pairs consist of two insulated wires gently twisted together • the more advanced category 5 twisted pairs were introduced with more twists which results in less crosstalk and a better-quality signal over longer distances The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 WCB/McGraw-Hill

  9. Figure 7-4 and 7-5 Twisted-Pair Cable • A twisted pair consists of two insulated copper wires, typically about 1 mm thick. • Twisting is done because two parallel wires constitute a fine antenna. • When the wires are twisted, the waves from different twists cancel out • Twisted pairs can run several kilometers without amplification, but for longer distances, repeaters are needed • Twisted pairs can be used for transmitting either analog or digital signals • The bandwidth depends on the thickness of the wire and the distance traveled, but several megabits/sec can be achieved for a few kilometers in many cases • Category 3 twisted pairs consist of two insulated wires gently twisted together • the more advanced category 5 twisted pairs were introduced with more twists The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 WCB/McGraw-Hill

  10. Figure 7-8 Unshielded Twisted-Pair Cable The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 WCB/McGraw-Hill

  11. Figure 7-9 UTP Connectors The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 WCB/McGraw-Hill

  12. Figure 7-10 Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 WCB/McGraw-Hill

  13. Figure 7-11 and 7-12 Coaxial Cable A coaxial cable consists of a stiff copper wire as the core, surrounded by an insulating material. The insulator is encased by a cylindrical conductor, often as a closely-woven braided mesh. The outer conductor is covered in a protective plastic sheath. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 WCB/McGraw-Hill

  14. Figure 7-11 and 7-12 Coaxial Cable • It has better shielding than twisted pairs, so it can span longer distances at higher speeds. • Two kinds of coaxial cable are widely used. One kind, 50-ohm cable, is commonly used when it is intended for digital transmission from the start. • The other kind, 75-ohm cable, is commonly used for analog transmission and cable television The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 WCB/McGraw-Hill

  15. Figure 7-20 Fiber Optics cable The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 WCB/McGraw-Hill

  16. Figure 7-13 Refraction The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 WCB/McGraw-Hill

  17. Figure 7-20 Fiber Optics cable • An optical transmission system has three key components: the light source, the transmission medium, and the detector. • A pulse of light indicates a 1 bit and the absence of light indicates a 0 bit. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 WCB/McGraw-Hill

  18. Figure 7-16 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 WCB/McGraw-Hill

  19. Figure 7-17 Multimode Step-Index The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 WCB/McGraw-Hill

  20. Figure 7-18 Multimode Graded-Index The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 WCB/McGraw-Hill

  21. Figure 7-19 Single Mode The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 WCB/McGraw-Hill

  22. Transmission Impairments • Attenuation Means loss of energy or signals. • Distortion means change in signal due to long distance travellings. • Noise is interference of other sources such as • Thermal noise, • Crosstalk noise • Induces noise from appliances and motors which act as anttena • Impulse noise comes from lightening and power lines and vehicles.