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The Ancient Middle East

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  1. The Ancient Middle East

  2. A View of Egypt by Satellite

  3. The Nile • Longest in world • South to North • Delta Mediterranean • Seasonal flooding • Fertile valley  agriculture by 5000 BCE • Sahara  west; Red Sea  east

  4. The Fertile Nile Valley • Natural barriers • Nile and deserts • Few foreign incursions unlike Mesopotamia • Floods every fall from rains in Central Africa • Prosperity /food surplus • Unifying factor • Transportation / communication • Orderly and cyclical view of universe (unlike Mesopotamia)

  5. The Annual Flooding of the Nile

  6. Nile Irrigation-the Shaduf

  7. Ancient Egyptian History

  8. Menes: Unifier of Upper & Lower Egypt c. 3050 B. C. E. ?

  9. Egyptian Social Hierarchy Bureaucracy

  10. God-Kings • 30 yr renewal ritual • Absolute power therefore no need for written code like Hammurabi’s • Return to Ra @ death • Built temples to ensure cont’d goodwill of gods • Provide priests for upkeep • Balance, order (goes back to Nile) • Upright souls believed their spirits would live eternally)

  11. Egyptian Nobility

  12. Egyptian Priestly Class

  13. Egyptian Scribe

  14. Ancient Egyptian Housing Middle Class Homes Peasant Homes

  15. Scenes of Ancient EgyptianDaily Life

  16. Making Ancient Egyptian Beer

  17. Making Ancient Egyptian Wine

  18. An Egyptian Woman’s “Must-Haves” Mirror Perfume Wigs

  19. Daily Life • Married young; arranged by parents • Monogamous • Additional wives if first is barren • Divorces occurred; women compensated • Husband: head of house • Wife: well respected; educated children • Women's’ rights” • Controlled own property and inheritance • Operate businesses, few involved in politics • Priestesses, 4 became pharaohs

  20. Papyrus  Paper Hieratic Scroll Piece Papyrus Plant

  21. Egyptian Math & Draftsmanship What number is this?

  22. Champollion & the Rosetta Stone

  23. Hieroglyphic “Cartouche”

  24. Hieroglyphics “Alphabet” 24 “letters” + 700 phonetic symbols

  25. Egyptian Creation Myth The Goddess Nut

  26. Creation Myths • Sun god Ra (Ra-Atum) • Waters of chaos • Created gods of wetness and dryness (Tefnut/Shu) •  male Geb (earth)  female Nut (sky)  2 sons (Osiris/Seth) 2 females (Isis/Nephthys) • Isis/Osiris king of Egypt • Seth kills Osiris takes throne • I/N patch Osiris up (Anubis) conceives son (Horus) • Horus def. Seth & becomes king of earth • Osiris  king of underworld • Humans from tears of Ra’s eye http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tcxgzMwcqN8&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1

  27. Egyptian Gods & Goddesses:“The Sacred ‘Trinity’” Osiris Isis Horus

  28. Iconography • Hathor (cow/love-fertitlty) • Thoth (ibis/writing-sci-law) • Maat (feather/truth-order-justice) • Anubis (jackal/embalm-cemetery) • Bastet (cat/daughter of Ra)

  29. Conventions • Customary way to represent people and world • Accepted by both artist and patrons • Images based on memory • Characteristic viewpoints • Formulas & proportions

  30. Preparations for the Underworld ANUBIS weighs the dead person’s heart against a feather. Priests protected your KA, or soul-spirit

  31. The Mummification Process http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-MQ5dL9cQX0&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1 1. Linen 6. Natron2. Sawdust 7. Onion3. Lichen 8. Nile Mud4. Beeswax 9. Linen Pads5. Resin 10. Frankinsense

  32. Preparation for the Afterlife

  33. Egyptian Mummies http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ReCxCL64p9k&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1 Ramses II1279-1212 B. C. E. Seti I1291-1278 B. C. E. Queen Tiye, wife of Amenhotep II1210-1200 B. C. E.

  34. Funerary Architecture • Ka (life spirit lives after death) • Sculpted likenesses work! • Comfy home for departed king’s ka so he continues to ensure well-being if Egypt • Safety in moving from one world to next  (preservation)

  35. Mastaba (flat topped one story bldgs / slanted walls above burial chamber) • Serdab: small sealed room for ka statue & chapel for mourning • vertical shaft to burial chamber w/sarcophagus • Necropolis: city of dead on edge of desert • Saqqara and Giza

  36. Djoser & Saqqara

  37. Djoser & Saqqara • 3rd Dynasty • Djoser 3650-2631 • Imhotep 1st architect • Mastaba step pyramid (like ziggurat) • Intentions: • Stairway to Ra • Protecting tomb • Adjacent funerary temple for rituals

  38. Old Kingdom c.2575 – 2150 BCE • Giza (3) • 4th dynasty • Khufu (2551-2528) • 13acres, 481’, • Khafre (2520-2494) • Menkaure (2490-2472) • Site follows east-west • Causeway to valley temple

  39. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K5GPpVCtH5A&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K5GPpVCtH5A&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1

  40. Lions-throne’s legs, lotus(upper, papyrus (lower), short pleated kilt, linen headress w/cobra (Ra), false beard (royalty), 4th dynasty, c. 2520-2494, anorthosite gneiss (from Nubia, changes color), 5’6 1/8” tall Horus

  41. Menkaure and a Queen (Khamerernebty?) • 4th dynasty (2490-2472) • Queen’s symbolic embrace • King: athletic, young, nude to waist, kilt, headcloth, • Balanced pose (one foot forward) • Queen smaller steps

  42. Journey to the Underworld The dead travel on the “Solar Bark.” A boat for the journey is provided for a dead pharaoh in his tomb.

  43. Egyptian Book of the Dead http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JnO3XsDFHe8&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1

  44. The Final Judgement Anubis Horus Osiris

  45. Shabtis: The Pharaoh’s Servants in the Afterlife