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http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0009891.html. http://www.talktofrank.com/uploadedImages/Drugs/LARGE\%20PHOTOS\_ALCOHOL.jpg. Introducing Alcohol.

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slide1
http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0009891.html

http://www.talktofrank.com/uploadedImages/Drugs/LARGE%20PHOTOS_ALCOHOL.jpg

Introducing Alcohol

slide2
In chemistry, any member of a group of organic chemical compounds characterized by the presence of one or more aliphatic OH (hydroxyl) groups in the molecule, and which form esters with acids. The main uses of alcohols are as solvents for gums, resins, lacquers, and varnishes; in the making of dyes; for essential oils in perfumery; and for medical substances in pharmacy. The alcohol produced naturally in the fermentation process and consumed as part of alcoholic beverages is called ethanol. When consumed the effects of alcohol include poisoning at high concentrations, and changes in the functioning of human nerve cells.

write their formulae and draw structures

general formula Cn H2n+1 OH

propanol

methanol

pentanol

ethanol

hexanol

butanol

slide5
http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=7388&rendTypeId=4

highlighted items increase by CH2

slide6
http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=7388&rendTypeId=4

Discuss

Any obvious trends in this data?

slide8
primary alcohol

secondary alcohol

slide10
http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0009891.html

Alcohols may be liquids or solids, according to the size and complexity of the molecule. A monohydric alcohol contains only one hydroxyl group in each molecule. The five simplest alcohols form a series in which the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in the molecule increases progressively, each one having an extra CH2 (methylene) group: methanol or wood spirit (methyl alcohol, CH3OH); ethanol (ethyl alcohol, C2H5OH); propanol (propyl alcohol, C3H7OH); butanol (butyl alcohol, C4H9OH); and pentanol (amyl alcohol, C5H11OH). The lower alcohols are liquids that mix with water; the higher alcohols, such as pentanol, are oily liquids immiscible with water; and the highest are waxy solids – for example, hexadecanol (cetyl alcohol, C16H33OH) and melissyl alcohol (C30H61OH), which occur in sperm-whale oil and beeswax, respectively. Alcohols containing the CH2OH group are primary; those containing CHOH are secondary; while those containing COH are tertiary.

Checked + correct, Mr G

slide11
http://ehs.fullerton.edu/Safety4Students/images/IMAGE105.JPG

http://home.att.net/~cat6a/images/Organicchem_40d.gif

Functional group isomerism

2-butanol

1-butanol

slide12
http://dl.clackamas.cc.or.us/ch106-03/nomenc3.gif

http://www.hamm-chemie.de/images/j11/strukturformeln/Alkanole/3-Pentanol.GIF

Functional group isomerism

2-pentanol

3-pentanol

slide15
http://au.answers.yahoo.com/answers2/frontend.php/question?qid=20080403133339AA1YVte

combustion of alcohol

C4H9OH

CH3OH

O2

CO2

H2O

C2H5OH

C3H7OH

slide16
http://au.answers.yahoo.com/answers2/frontend.php/question?qid=20080403133339AA1YVte

combustion of alcohol

C4H9OH

CH3OH

O2

CO2

H2O

C2H5OH

C3H7OH

slide17
http://au.answers.yahoo.com/answers2/frontend.php/question?qid=20080403133339AA1YVte

sodium + alcohol

C4H9OH

Na

CH3OH

H2

ONa

C2H5OH

C3H7OH

slide18
http://au.answers.yahoo.com/answers2/frontend.php/question?qid=20080403133339AA1YVte

sodium + alcohol

C4H9OH

Na

CH3OH

H2

ONa

C2H5OH

C3H7OH

slide19
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/22/Ester.png/781px-Ester.png

acid + alcohol

CH3COOH

C4H9OH

HCOOH

CH3OH

CH3COOC2H5

C2H5OH

H2O

C3H7OH

slide20
http://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/catalysis/esterify.html

The mechanism for the formation of ethyl ethanoate

A reminder of the facts

Ethanoic acid reacts with ethanol in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid as a catalyst to produce the ester, ethyl ethanoate. The reaction is slow and reversible. To reduce the chances of the reverse reaction happening, the ester is distilled off as soon as it is formed.

slide21
Notice, the acid OH group marked in green ends up as the free water molecule

DO NOT LEARN THIS...TOO COMPLEX

But its interesting! YES?

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