ELEVENTH-CENTURY KINGDOMS, CASTLES AND KNIGHTS. HEAVY PLOW c. 1100. Eleventh-century Europe. The “Roman Empire” of Otto I (the Great), ca. 963.
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Sclavinia, Germany, Gaul and Rome bringing gifts to Emperor Otto IIIGospels of Otto III (Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 4453), produced at Reichenau Abbey, ca. 960
Cnut the Great, King of England and Denmark, reigned 1016-1035(from New Minster’s Liber Vitae, Winchester: Cnut and his Queen Ælfgifu/Emma present the Winchester Cross)
Seal of Louis VI “the Fat,” King of France 1108-37Louis’s greatest accomplishment was gaining control over the royal domain lands
Seal of William I the Conqueror, duke of Normandy 1035-1087, and king of England 1066-87
Motte and Bailey castles were the earliest and least elaborate castles The term refers to a hill (motte) and an enclosure at its base surrounded by a ditch and palisade. The hill was often man-made Drawing by Jeffrey Thomas
Count Fulk Nerra of Anjou’s castles (987-1040)from N. Hooper and M. Bennett, Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487
Fulk Nerra’s Castle of Montrichard on Cher River, about 40 km east of Tours, 1005-1006
Beaugency built by Fulk Nerra on the Loire between Blois and Orleans, 1020s (left) / White Tower, London, built by William the Conqueror in 1078, 90 feet (27.4m) high and 118 feet (35.9m) by 107 feet (32.6m) across, the walls 15 feet thickness at base to almost 11 feet in the upper parts )
William the Conqueror takes the Castle of Dinan (Bayeux Tapestry, ca. 1075)
Norman knights charge an English shield wall during the Battle of Hastings (1066)from the Bayeux Tapestry c.1075
Foot soldiers from the “Life of St. Aubin of Angers”(Bibliothèque Nationale, 11th century ms)