Issues in Population Geography AP Human Geo
Facts on Population Growth • Current Global Population: 7.2 billion people • 2050 projected populations • UN Low Growth: 7.5 billion • UN Mid Growth: 9.0 billion • UN High Growth: 11 billion • Most growth over the next 50 years will take place in Africa. • Example of rapid growth: Nigeria • Currently #7 (175,000,000) • #3 by 2045 (beating out the U.S.) • #2 by 2100 (beating out China)
The Big Issue: Overpopulation • While many MDC’s have low/no population growth or even decline (DTM 4 and 5), most LDC’s are still in Stage 3 of the DTM and experiencing rapid population growth. • LDC’s are less equipped to deal with the challenges of rapid population growth. • Exceeding carrying capacity (resources) • Rapid growth of urban areas (slums) • Job opportunities
The Smaller But Still Important Issue: Declining Populations • Some countries (Stage 5?) are experiencing a decline in NIR (CDR higher than CBR) • People choose not to have kids or may be unable. • Ex. Russia, Japan • Countries may maintain population through immigration, but culture may be affected. • Creates an upside down pyramid, too many old people and not enough young people to support them (GRAYING POPULATION)
Ideally…. • Everyone wants to be in Stage 4 of the DTM, experiencing slow, steady, controlled population growth. • Replacement level fertility is a TFR of 2.1….parents will produce the number of children needed to replace themselves. • Zero Population Growth (ZPG)- population remains the same size from year to year.
Anti-Natalist Policies • Restrictive Population Policies • Make fewer babies (Stage 2/3 countries) • Example: India • Abortions are readily available • Contraceptive's readily available • Forced sterilizations? • Female infanticide • Example: China’s One Child Policy • Men preferred, gender imbalance
Pro-Natalist Policies • Expansive Population Policies • Promote reproduction/ more babies! (Stage 5) • Example: Sweden • Cash payments and tax breaks for families with children • Leave from work for up to 8 years to raise a child!!! • Racy programming later at night….no joke!
How to decrease the NIR • We wouldn’t want to increase CDR, that would be mean… >: | • Shorten life expectancy? • Take away medical care • Introduce diseases • Instead, we need to decrease the CBR in LDC’s • 1. Increase use of contraception • Sex education, free distribution • 2. Empower women • Education, jobs, no longer “barefoot and pregnant..” • 0-2 children instead of 3-6
Cultural Barriers to Reducing CBR • Some cultures are opposed to birth control or sex education in any form. • Strict Catholics and Muslims • Others strictly enforce gender roles • Men should be educated, working • Women should be in the home, raising children
Epidemiological Transition • Examines the causes of death in each stage of the DTM. • Stage 1: Pandemics such as Black Plague • Stage 2: Diseases such as Cholera spread due to proximity in cities, poor living conditions • Stage 3/ 4: Degenerative and human created diseases. • Cancer, CV/ heart disease, diabetes • Stage 5: Return of the pandemic? • Swine flu, H1N1, SARS, etc. • Globalization makes spread of disease easier, faster