Population Geography The study of the spatial variations in the distribution, composition, migration, and growth of populations and how they are related to the nature of places.
Stages of Population Growth • Low Growth: Birthrate and death rate are high but equal • As healthcare improves, the death rate declines • Ex. Ye long time ago • High Growth: Birthrate still high, but death rate declines causing rapid population growth • Ex. Started in Industrial Revolution • Many African countries are still here • Moderate Growth: The birthrate drops and most children live to adulthood • Family size decreases as children live longer • Ex. Developing countries, Mexico • Low Growth: Birthrate and death rate are low and relatively equal. • Some countries may experience zero growth • Ex. Most developed countries like US, Canada, Japan
Population Pyramids • A graphic device that shows sex and age distribution of a population. • Allows geographers to examine how events in society such as wars, famine, or epidemics affect the population of a country or region.
Population Distribution • The world’s 6 billion people are not evenly distributed • 90% of the population live in the Northern Hemisphere • ¼ of the world’s people live in East Asia • ½ of the world’s people live in either East Asia or South Asia
Migration • Migration alters the distribution of population • Push Factors: reasons people leave their homeland and migrate to another region • Examples? • Pull Factors: draw or attract people to another location • Examples?
Population Density • Measures the number of people per square mile
Urban Geography The study of how people use space in cities
Increasing number of urban populations… • 1800: 3% of people lived in cities • 1850: 6% of people lived in cities • 1900: 14% of people lived in cities • 1950: 30% of people lived in cities • 2000: 47% of people lived in cities • The population of urban settlements exceeded the population of rural settlements in 2008.
Location, Location, Location • Many cities around the world share common geographic characteristics • Good transportation (river, lakes, coasts) • Easy access to resources (Sacramento-gold) • Where goods shift from one mode of transportation to another (Chicago)
Impacts of Urbanization • Urban Sprawl: the rapid, often poorly planned spread of development from an urban area outward to rural areas • Squatter Settlements: an area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not won or rent and build homemade structures. • Latin America: barrios, barriadas, favelas • India:bustees • UN estimates175 million people live in squatter settlements in 2003