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Market Challenges for Scandinavian Media. 11.2.2013 Jens Barland. @jbarland + jens.barland@media.uio.no + jens.barland@hig.no. Background and Research. Jens Barland: PhD-project: «Journalism for the Market» , IMK – University of Oslo (LINK to e-book)

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market challenges for scandinavian media

Market Challenges for Scandinavian Media

11.2.2013

Jens Barland

@jbarland + jens.barland@media.uio.no + jens.barland@hig.no

background and research
Background and Research

Jens Barland:

  • PhD-project: «Journalism for the Market», IMK – University of Oslo (LINK to e-book)
  • Associate Professor in Media Management and Innovation – Gjøvik University College
  • 20 years background in the media as editor, director and journalist
    • Aftenposten, Stavanger Aftenblad, Dagbladet
  • MA in IR: «Press Freedom and Globalisation»(LINK to e-book)
program
Program
  • Changes in the market
    • Intro
    • Useful sources
    • Trends
  • Responses to the market
  • How does it affect journalism?

From the case studies in my research

intro
Intro
  • The simple story: What happened?
  • Digitalization:
    • Newspapers + Online news + Television + Radio + Books + Advertisements + Information overload + How we live and use media…
transformation to digital distribution
Transformation to digital distribution

From 1995

Online edition:

Growth in use, content, roles…

Distribution on mobile, smartphones and iPad represent the growth and diversification in digital distribution

1995

Newspaper

useful sources on scandinavian media
Useful Sources on Scandinavian Media

Scandinavia:

Norway:

Medienorge

(Universityof Bergen)

Sweden:

Nordicom

Denmark:

http://www.statistikbanken.dk/18

  • Nordicom

(University ofGothenburg)

Industry:

  • MBL (mediebedriftene.no)
  • Tidningsutgivarna (tu.se)
  • Mediearbejdsgiverne.dk
scandinavia trends and statistics
Scandinavia: Trends and Statistics
  • http://www.nordicom.gu.se/eng.php?portal=&main=
scandinavia trends and statistics1
Scandinavia: Trends and Statistics
  • Example: Number of newspapers 2010

1 Iceland: Paid-for newspapers in 2010, free papers in 2008.

2 Published 4-7 days/week.

3 Published 1-3 days/week.

4 A wide variety of papers that fill two minimum criteria: they contain editorial material and appear at least once a week.

5 Including MetroXpress, Urban and 24timer.

6 Including members of "Ugeaviserne", a branch organisation for local free weeklies, plus Denmark's largest free paper Søndagsavisen. Different editions for weekdays and

weekends are counted as separate titles. The regional editions of Søndagsavisen are counted as one single title.

7 Including members of Finnish Newspapers Association only.

8 Metro, City, 18 Minuter and Extra Östergötland. Two (Metro and City) have several geographical editions, but are counted here as single titles.

9 Papers with audited circulation only.

media use and trends source the report medie ret 2010 2011 medienorge uib
Media: Use and TrendsSource: The report ”Medieåret 2010-2011” - Medienorge, UiB

http://medienorge.uib.no/files/publikasjoner/Medie%C3%A5ret%202010-2011-WEB.pdf

media use and trends source the report medie ret 2010 2011 medienorge uib1
Media: Use and TrendsSource: The report ”Medieåret 2010-2011” - Medienorge, UiB

From Table of Contents:

newspapers decline especially sale of single copies
Newspapers Decline – Especially sale of single copies

Niche Newspapers are growing + number of titles

newspaper circulation daily 1000 ex
Newspaper circulation - daily 1000 ex.

Total

Made by Jens Barland, datasources:

Norway: http://medienorge.uib.no/?cat=statistikk&medium=avis&queryID=337

Sweden: http://www.nordicom.gu.se/?portal=mt&main=showSveStats.php&menu=menu_sve&me=7&media=Dagspress&type=media

Single sold copies –

”tabloids”

falling circulation eroding business models

Newspapers US:

Falling circulation, eroding business models

Source: Robert Picard, in Dagens Næringsliv 10 Feb 2010, page 52

product life cycles

Theoreticalconcept:

Product Life Cycles

Source: Philip Kotler, 2009, p. 278

Introduction Growth Maturity Decline

  • Therefore: Product development, to
  • increase the growth phase,
  • extend the maturity phase, or
  • esthablish a new product
  • See also: Product strategies + Prices strategies
internet access at home

Useof digital media:

Internet access at home

Data sources:

Norway: http://medienorge.uib.no/?cat=statistikk&medium=it&aspekt=tilgang og bruk&queryID=72

Sweden: http://www.nordicom.gu.se/?portal=mt&main=showSveStats.php&menu=menu_sve&me=7&media=PC och internet&type=media

example ipod iphone ipad
Example: iPod/iPhone/iPad

Source: Meeker 2012: Mary Meeker; 2012 Internet Trends; D10 Conference 2012;

http://www.scribd.com/document_downloads/95259089?extension=pdf&from=embed

example ipod iphone ipad1

http://e24.no/it/nordmenn-kjoepte-en-halv-million-nettbrett-i-fjor/20331343http://e24.no/it/nordmenn-kjoepte-en-halv-million-nettbrett-i-fjor/20331343

Example: iPod/iPhone/iPad

Source: Meeker 2012: Mary Meeker; 2012 Internet Trends; D10 Conference 2012;

http://www.scribd.com/document_downloads/95259089?extension=pdf&from=embed

example online from pc to mobile india
Example: Online from PC to mobile (India)

Source: Meeker 2012: Mary Meeker; 2012 Internet Trends; D10 Conference 2012;

http://www.scribd.com/document_downloads/95259089?extension=pdf&from=embed

slide25

Christmas eve single day year-on-year comparison – VG Mobile

2009

2010

2011

Rituals the same, and breaking news seldom distrupt these

mobile online in norway 2012 weekly unique users
Mobile Online in Norway 2012Weekly Unique Users:

Online trafic statistics for Norway, TNS Gallup: http://rapp.tns-gallup.no/?aid=9072261

traditional newspaper business model

Differentincomestructure:

Traditional newspaper business model

+ Circulation

+ Advertising

= Income

- Costs

= Profit

Different business logic for different newspapers

= Income from circulation

= Income from advertising

Newspapers operate

in two markets

slide33

http://www.poynter.org/latest-news/mediawire/203357/nytco-reports-668000-digital-subscribers-in-fourth-quarter/http://www.poynter.org/latest-news/mediawire/203357/nytco-reports-668000-digital-subscribers-in-fourth-quarter/

Norway, 2011:

A+BT+SA+Fvn:

61 % paperads

39 % papercirc.

eroding business models for newspapers
Eroding Business Models for Newspapers

Paper

Online

Response for manyyears, transformation to online business. However, thelargestshareofincome is still from paper (2011):

Online Paper Other

29 % 71 % 0 % Aftonbladet + SvD

19 % 77 % 3 % VG

5 % 76 % 19 % Regional Norwegian

newspapers,

Source: Schibsted Annual Report 2011Schibsted-owned

Still, 80 %

ofincome from paper

the gravity of digitalization
”The gravity of digitalization”

The total effects of many changes:

  • Broadband: Broader, everywhere, wireless
  • Many units: From one PC in the house to several units for each family member
  • User friendly / handy: cellphone  smartphone
  • Apps: general  specialized (personalized)
  • Smart-TV … and “smart” everything
  • Social media: Our dicitalized lifestyle, …more?
program1
Program
  • Changes in the market
    • Intro
    • Useful sources
    • Trends
  • Responses to the market
  • How does it affect journalism?
journalism for the market
«Journalism for the Market»
  • Purpose: Identify how the market’s impact on media companies influences changes in journalism.

Market

Journalism

is changed over time

Technology

theoretical framework
Theoretical framework

Market-driven journalism

Media as Institutions

Owner

Ads.

Sources

Denis McQuail, 2010, McQuail's mass communication theory.

Consumer

John H. McManus, 1994, Market-Driven Journalism: Let the Citizen Beware?

Media management: Picard, Doyle…

narrowing of the study
Narrowing of the study

1995

2010

”The gravity of digitalization”

”Paper””Paper and Online””Digital publishing and paper”

The newspaper circulation increases, turns, declines

Schibsted on stock excange. New strategy: Digital & international

Concentration of ownership

Market and competition

develop paper products where the business model still works

One ofthestrategicalresponses:

Develop paper products where the business model still works

4 P’s (Kotler):

Product Price

Promotion Place

four stories to illustrate practices of segmentation in journalism
Four stories to illustrate practices of segmentationin journalism
  • Use of segmentation tools
  • Hunting female readers
  • Individualization = new income
  • Specialization in a multi platform strategy
slide42
Story 1: Aftonbladet’s use of segmentation tools in the newsroom”Who are Aftonbladet’s readers and buyers?”

Editor-In-Chief since 2008

aftonbladet s new sunday newspaper
Aftonbladet’s new Sunday newspaper

Re-launched January 2010

The conceptual model describes even articles and genres for specific target groups on specific pages

Examples: 11 April 2010 

slide47

”Dokument”(Tiger Woods) made for Discussing Dahlgrens.

”Mitten”(graphic illustrated news) made for Active Dan.

”Intervju” (celebrity) made for Entertainment Nathalie.

”Läsning”(Wikileak) for Discussing Dahlgrens.

Front pageand news has to attract these selected target groups.

story 2 aftonbladet hunting for female readers
Story 2: Aftonbladet Hunting for Female Readers
  • Products specific for targeting female readers

1995 2010

  • Several reasons to go for female readers

A detail from the Annual Report 2006 

aftonbladet s hunting for female readers
Aftonbladet’s Hunting for Female Readers
  • 1995: Aftonbladet’s extra products specifically targeting female readers:

Female content on the new online edition

Glossy magazine

Sundays

Supplement

Wednesdays

aftonbladet s hunting for female readers1
Aftonbladet’s Hunting for Female Readers
  • 2010 (May) – about 30 female products, represented here by 19 examples:
slide51
May 2010: Aftonbladet targets female readers by these specific editorial products, special pages or web sites
  • Bonus – two daily labelled pages in the main newspaper.
  • Female news:Female journalists are dedicated to cover some selected news and write them for a primarily female readership.
  • Kolumnister – a majority of Aftonbladet’s promoted columnists are women.
  • Viktklubb – viktklubb.aftonbladet.se
  • Wendelais used as title for female content in the online newspaper (www.aftonbladet.se/wendela).

6.+7. Sofis mode – a weekly magazine about fashion, and a website (www.aftonbladet.se/sofismode).

8.+9. Klick! – a weekly magazine filled up with celebrities and pictures, similar to gossip magazines. And a website: www.aftonbladet.se/nojesbladet/klick.

10.+11. Kropp & hälsa – a monthly magazine with health, lifestyle, slimming, diet, inspiration and relaxing. And a website: www.aftonbladet.se/kropphalsa.

12. Söndag – a weekly glossy magazine (lifestyle, relations...)

13. Härligt hemma – a weekly glossy family magazine.

14. TV – a weekly magazine with TV tableau and related content.

15. Kryss & Quiz – a weekly magazine on crosswords/quiz.

16. Resa – a glossy magazine issued ten times a year.

17. Tasteline – a website for cooking, in cooperation with Svenska Dagbladet (www.tasteline.com).

  • Mat & Vin – a magazine issued four times a year.
  • Allergi– a Wendela sub-site in the main menu: www.aftonbladet.se/kropphalsa/allergi
  • Barn– a Wendela sub-site in the main menu: (www.aftonbladet.se/wendela/barn).
  • Bostad & inredning– a sub-site in the main menu:(www.aftonbladet.se/bostadinredning).
  • Inredningsbloggen– a sub-site in the main menu: (blogg.aftonbladet.se/inredning).
  • Bröllopet – a website for content on Crown Princess Victoria’s wedding 19 June 2010 (www.aftonbladet.se/brollopet).
  • Royal – four magazines on the royal wedding were issued between March and June 2010.
  • Brud & bröllop – a one shot 140 pages magazine.
  • Horoskop – a Wendela sub-site in the main menu: (www.aftonbladet.se/wendela/horoskop).
  • Jobbet – a Wendela sub-site in the main menu: (www.aftonbladet.se/wendela/jobbet).
  • Relationer– a Wendela sub-site in the main menu: (www.aftonbladet.se/wendela/relationer).
  • 153 kvinnor – a website for this series, still updated with related news: www.aftonbladet.se/nyheter/153kvinnordodade
story 3 weight club s individual content creates new income
Story 3: Weight Club’s individual content creates new income

Background:

  • Growth in consumer and lifestyle journalism
  • Internet changed media markets, a challenge for newspapers
  • Dot-com-crash challenged online outlets to find new income models for internet publishing
vg s weight club is profitable
VG’s Weight Club is profitable

Five years:

x 195.000 memberships

= 100 mill NOK [74~117]

330 tons slimming

= 299,- NOK per kg [224~354]

  • VG’s branding
  • Loyalty: ”Club” invites to an intimate relation
  • Buying frequency
  • User frequency online
  • Membership fee
  • Ad’s placement paper
  • Ad’s placement online
  • Social media
  • WebShop
  • ”Weight Club” brand on other products
  • Difficult to copy
  • Simple to copy

New income opportunities and market effects:

story 4 vg bought dine penger a specialized magazine
Story 4: VG bought “Dine Penger” – a specialized magazine
  • Staff with specific competence
  • Fitted for use in a multi platform strategy
vg s dine penger is about specialization and multi platform publishing
VG’s ”Dine Penger” is about specialization and multi platform publishing
  • VG 19.4.2010
  • VG.no 3.11.2010
  • VG.no/dinepenger 3.11.2010
  • VG.no/dinepenger 24.4.2010
  • Dine penger - nr. 2/2010
  • Dine Penger - special ed. 2009
the four stories illustrates
The four stories illustrates…
  • Aftonbladet’s news:Segmentation tools are used as operational tools for developing new products + to manage newsrooms = framework for everyday practice of journalism
  • Female readers: Segmentation is a response to market diversification, how journalism works within a market logic + internet supports segmentation + ongoing process
  • Weight club: Individual content is more useful and creates new income opportunities
  • Specialization in a multi platform strategy: Segmentation used as a tool to go deeper in a more complex society + specialized content can be used “omnibus” in a multi platform strategy
the strategies behind segmentation
The strategies behind segmentation

Editors:

Directors:

Compensation: new income to replace erosion of traditional income

Attention: vital to survive

Diversification: reduce risk and dependency

  • Cacophony: our way to reach readers
  • Complexity: a need for expertise and specialization
  • Consumers: a need for help in a deregulated society
program2
Program
  • Changes in the market
    • Intro
    • Useful sources
    • Trends
  • Responses to the market
  • How does it affect journalism?
segmentation has significant effects on journalism
“Segmentation” has significant effects on journalism

Around the journalism:

The practice of journalism:

More specialized, specific competence in a more complex society

More relevant and useful, more selective for readers overloaded of information

More narrow, supports smaller communities

More sensitive to readers, or market-oriented

More polarized news values

  • Framework defined by the market constitutes the space for everyday practice
  • Media’s role: Less omnibus, more segmented
  • Reader’s role: Less citizen, more target group defined by the logic of the market
  • Journalist’s role: Less power, more producer
  • Media houses: New income
pro con market oriented journalism

Debates:

Pro & con market oriented journalism

Supportive arguments

(from my informants):

Scepticism

(from John McManus):

Commercial logic and Public service logic differ

“Economic” selection:

Not harm advertisers

The cost of uncovering

The cost of reporting

Proportions: the advertisers audience

Ties to economic logic: hindrance for the journalism to play its democratic role

  • “It is a journalistic goal to be widespread = similar to market goals”
  • “Good quality = a competition advantage”
  • “Qualitative journalism is expansive”
  • “Good income = independence”
  • “Profit necessary for further development”
  • “Competition improves the journalism”
market challenges for scandinavian media1

Summary:

Market Challenges for Scandinavian Media
  • Newspapers: Falling circulation, eroding business models + different income structures
  • Internet: Growth in use and digital publishing
  • How media respond to digitalization
  • How media respond to market challenges, one example: segmentation (four illustrative stories)
  • Segmentation effects on journalism
  • Debates on market oriented journalism
program3
Program
  • Changes in the market
    • Intro
    • Useful sources
    • Trends
  • Responses to the market
  • How does it affect journalism?