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Chicago. Boston. CNY. Seattle. NYC. Denver. SF. ARPANET ‘60s CSNET NSFNET ANSNET. LA. Houston. WAN (Wide Area Network ). , but not really. Local Area Network Emerged, 1970’s. Chicago. Boston. Seattle. NYC. Denver. SF. LA. Houston. WAN  Backbone Network (early ‘80s).

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slide1

Chicago

Boston

CNY

Seattle

NYC

Denver

SF

ARPANET ‘60s

CSNET

NSFNET

ANSNET

LA

Houston

WAN (Wide Area Network )

, but not really

local area network emerged 1970 s
Local Area Network Emerged, 1970’s

Chicago

Boston

Seattle

NYC

Denver

SF

LA

Houston

wan backbone network early 80s
WAN  Backbone Network (early ‘80s)

Chicago

Boston

CNY

Seattle

NYC

Denver

SF

ARPANET

CSNET

NSFNET

ANSNET

LA

Houston

internet and routers

SU

Internet and Routers

Chicago

Boston

CNY

Seattle

Yale

NYC

ISU

Colgate

Denver

SF

UCB

LA

Houston

UCLA

address for a postal mail to taiwan
Address for a postal mail to Taiwan

Chung-Chih Li

Box 5150

Illinois State University

Normal, IL 61790

USA

李中志 先生收

永和市 福和路 152號 11樓 之 1

Taipei, 23438

Taiwan

post office as the router

USA

Post Office as the Router

Regional

Post Office

Local

Post Office

Mailman

Mailman

Air Port

Air Port

Taiwan

Regional

Post Office

Local

Post Office

Mailman

internet and routers1

SU

Internet and Routers

Chicago

Boston

CNY

Seattle

Yale

NYC

ISU

ISU

Denver

SF

XYZ

ITK

Lab

LA

Houston

UCLA

tcp ip
TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/

Internet Protocol

IP Address: (4 bytes)

0

0

0

0

255

255

255

255

256  256  256  256 = 4,294,967,296

128.10.2.1

128.230.208.46

128.230.18.55

149.43.80.141

149.43.3.23

slide9
DNS

Domain Name System

Arthur.cs.purdue.edu

apollo.syr.edu

rodan.syr.edu

ilstu.edu

cs.colgate.edu

colgate.edu

…………..

………….

128.10.2.1

128.230.208.46

128.230.18.55

138.87.246.1

149.43.3.23

149.43.1.7

…………..

( some IP may not have a domain name)

The table is huge, we don’t want to maintain this table in every computer.

  • Domain Name Server :
    • A computer that provides DNS services.
    • One can let his/her computer uses a specific DNS or let it arbitrarily use an available one.
routers and ip address

128.230

Routers and IP Address

Chicago

Boston

CNY

Seattle

Yale

NYC

DNS

………..

cs.colgate.edu = 149.43.3.23

………..

149.43.1.7

149.43.3.23

149.43.2.1

………….

Denver

3

SF

2

DNS

LA

Houston

………..

cs.colgate.edu = 149.43.3.23

………..

1

UCLA

cs.ucla.edu/~xxx http://cs.colgate.edu/~chungli

………….

131.179.128.25

………….

131.179.128.25/~xxx http://cs.colgate.edu/~chungli

traveling trough the internet

128.230

Traveling trough the Internet

5

6

Chicago

Boston

4

CNY

Seattle

Yale

NYC

7

DNS

………..

cs.colgate.edu = 149.43.3.23

………..

149.43.1.7

149.43.3.23

149.43.2.1

………….

8

3

Denver

SF

131.179.128.25/~xxx http://cs.colgate.edu/~chungli

131.179.128.25/~xxx http://149.43.3.23/~chungli

2

LA

Houston

1

UCLA

………….

131.179.128.25

………….

traveling trough the internet 2

128.230

Traveling trough the Internet (2)

5

6

Chicago

Boston

4

CNY

Seattle

Yale

10

9

NYC

7

149.43.1.7

149.43.3.23

149.43.2.1

………….

8

131.179.128.25/~xxx  (index.html)

11

3

Denver

SF

2

12

LA

Houston

13

1

UCLA

………….

131.179.128.25

………….

14

dynamic ip addresses

………………………

dennisliattwcny

………………………

………………………

………………………….

dli : (dli@twcny.rr.com)

seanyboy : (seanyboy@twcny.rr.com)

gbush : (gbush@twcny.rr.com)

…………………………..

…………………………..

Dynamic IP addresses

home.twcny.rr.com

207.211.212.39.

CNY

twcny.rr.com

24.24.1.140

66.24.2.170

66.24.3.190

66.24.3.180

192.168.0.196

192.168.0.188

192.168.0.190

osi model
OSI Model

International Organization for

Standardization (1984):

Open Systems Interconnection reference model.

  • The model modulizes a sequence of tasks for inter-exchanged information between computers into 7 layers:
  • Application layer (7)
  • Presentation layer (6)
  • Session layer (5)
  • Transport layer (4)
  • Network layer (3)
  • Data Link layer (2)
  • Physical layer (1)
  • Each layer should be viewed as a job (task) description but not the actual rules or methods to do the job
osi model analogy
OSI Model Analogy

Knight Lancelot

King Arthur

slide18
WWW

Original purpose of the World Wide Web was to locate and display information

  • Created by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990-91 at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Purpose: to easily access cross-referenced documents, through a method called hypertext linking
  • Hypertext link (hyperlink): contains a reference to a Web page that can be accessed by a click (URL)
terminologies
Terminologies
  • Web page: a document on the Web
  • Web site: refers to a location on the Internet of Web pages and related files that belong to a company, organization, or individual
  • Web browser: a program for displaying Web pages
  • Request: when the user’s browser asks a Web server for a Web page
  • Web server: a computer that delivers Web pages
  • Response: what the Web server returns to the Web browser
terminologies1
Terminologies
  • Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): a generic term for many types of names and addresses on the Web
  • Uniform Resource Locator (URL): a unique address on the Web
  • Uniform Resource Name (URN): a name (identity) of a resource on the Web

http://www.itk.ilstu.edu/faculty/chungli/ITK368-485/index.html

Protocol://…....Domain name…./………….…Directory………….……/…Filename…

urn:isbn:0451450523

Urn : Namespace : nameString

c o s m e t i c s
Cosmetics

Tools or materials to make up faces

Face + (???)

HTML Document = Hypertext = Text + HTML Tags

slide22

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): a markup language used to create Web pages (HTML pages)

  • Markup language: a set of characters or symbols that define a document’s logical structure and how to display the document
  • HTML is based on Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)
  • HTML documents are text documents that contain formatting instructions called tags

HTML

html hypertext markup language
HTML:HyperText Markup Language
  • A tool to make up HyperText
  • HyperText: text, tables, frames, pictures, images, links, scripts, etc.
  • A formal language for a Web author to:
  • Provide information to Search Engines
  • Instruct web browsers.
  • How:
  • Use tags to distinguish the text and instructions.
structure of html document
Structure of HTML document

<html>

<head> Section

  • The author may want to provide information about his/her web pages to the web browsers or search engines.

</head>

<body> Section

  • Here the web author puts the material for his/her readers.

</body>

</html>

slide25
Tags

In general, a tag is an instruction to instruct the web browser how to present the objects ;

<h1> This is H1</H1>

start tag

end tag

End tag closes the effect

of start tag.

Some tags do not have end tags, e.g. <br> : line breaking

questions
Questions:
  • What will happen if we miss some end tags?
  • What kind of problem we will face if we want to type “<h1>” in our text. What should we do?
attribute of tag
Attribute of Tag

Some tags use attributes to specify how to perform their functions.

<font color=“green”> Turn me into green </font>

Attribute name

Attribute value

We can specify more than one attribute in a tag. E.g.

<font color=“green” size=+2> Turn me bigger and green

</font>

hr tag
<HR> tag

Some tags generate objects for the web browser.

<hr size=10 color=“green" align="left" width=20%>

<hr size=10 color=“red" align=“center" width=50%>

slide29
<head>

<title> Basic HTML </title>

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=big5">

<meta name="Author" content="Chung-Chih Li">

<meta name="GENERATOR" content="Microsoft FrontPage 3.0">

</head>

More on HTML tags, go to the web page of this class

static html
Static HTML

file1, file2, file3, file4, file5, file6, file7, file8, file9, file10, file11, file12, file13, file14, …………. ………………..

……………….. ………………..

………………..

………………..

………………..

I E

file6,

file9,

file100,

…….

File server

click

click

click

click

click

need file20

need file34

click

click

Internet

Client

Server

dynamic html
Dynamic HTML

file1, file2, file3, file4, file5, file6, file7, …………. ………………..

program1, program2, program3, program4,

………………..

data1, data2, date3, 1022

………………..

program 8

file9,

outputs of prog4,

program 3,

……

program 4

I E

Program 7

File server

Name: Jane ..

Tel: 315 …

need file34

Internet

Client

Server

Security!

form cgi scripts
Form, CGI, Scripts

Files (html, ..)

CGI programs

Java scripts

data

html,

html (java scripts)

html,….

CGI prog

I E

CGI prog.

File server

form (data)

need html

Internet

Client

Server

slide33
CGI

Common Gateway Interface

Interface between Client and Server

  • Standardize:
  • I/O format
  • Common used environmental variables

On server side, programs must follow the CGI standards, and

hence they are called CGI programs.

cgi scripts and programs
CGI Scripts and Programs

Scripts

Interpreter

Results

  • Perl, Vbasic, Java Scripts.. (they are stored in ASCII files)

Exe programs

Results

  • (they are machine codes)

Program source

compiler

Exe programs

  • C, C++, Java, Fortran ………….
java scripts in html documents
Java Scripts in HTML documents
  • Literally, a client computer runs nothing but browsers.
  • Thus, a client computer receives HTML documents only.

<html>

……

<script type=“text/javascript”>

Javascripts

</script>

……

</html>

dynamic html1
Dynamic HTML

file1, file2, file3, ..

quiz.html

…….

Program1….

cgi-bin/generic-grader.pl

………………..

data1, data2, date3, 1022

………………..

IE

<form name=“x” method=“post”

action="http://cs.colgate.edu/cgi-bin/generic-grader.pl"

…..

</form>

100 out of 100 are

correct..

quiz.html

result.html

generic-grader.pl

file server

answers.txt

Form x …….

? quiz.html

? answers.txt

Internet

Client

Server

ASP.NET does not go beyond the structure but make the job much easier.