Animal Phyla: Porifera & Cnidaria - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Animal Phyla: Porifera & Cnidaria

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  1. Animal Phyla: Porifera & Cnidaria

  2. Phylum Porifera (Sponges) • Porifera means “__________________” • Their bodies are perforated with holes that lead to an inner water chamber • They pump water through these pores and expel it though_____________(large opening at top)

  3. Anatomy of a Sponge F A G B D E • Key • A) Osculum • Pore • Amoebocyte • D) Spicule • E) Choanocyte • F) Flagella • G) Microfilaments C D E E

  4. Anatomy of a Sponge (Cont.) • _____________________(Choanocytes) • Inner layer of cells • Contain flagella and microfilaments • Flagella = suck water through pores • Microfilaments = trap food particles • ___________________(Amebocytes) • Middle layer • Take up food from choanocytes, digest it, and carry nutrients to other cells • Form ________________ • ____________________ • Scaffolding that give sponge shape • Used by scientists to identify different species of sponges

  5. Water Flow in Sponges…Pores Internal Cavity  Osculum

  6. Phylum Porifera (Cont.) • ___________________(no symmetry) • Lack __________________ • Represent the most ________ animals • They have been evolving the ___________! • Where do they live? (Habitat) • ________________________________ • How big are they? (Size) • _________________________

  7. Phylum Porifera (Cont.) • What do they eat? (Diet) • ______________________ • Filter bacteria, protists, and small crustaceans from the water • How do they move? • Mobile _____________________ • ___________ (do not move) as adults

  8. Phylum Porifera (Cont.) • How do they reproduce? • Asexually • ____________________ • Produce internal buds called ______________which grow into new sponges • Regeneration • Able to ________________ missing parts • Sexually • ____________________ • Both male and female sex cells made by _______________ • Sperm released from _______________of one sponge and enters the _________________ of another sponge– sperm of one sponge fertilizes the egg of another sponge

  9. Red Barrel Sponge Image Source: http://www.pbs.org/kcet/shapeoflife/animals/porifera1.html

  10. Branching Sponge

  11. Tube Sponge

  12. Indonesian Sponge

  13. Examples of Sponge Spicules

  14. Life Cycle of a Sponge Larva Released • Sexual Reproduction • Egg and sperm meet • New sponge is not identical to parents Flagella (movement) Sperm Egg New Sponge Dividing Cells Larva

  15. Phylum Cnidaria (Jellyfish, Sea Anemones, & Corals) • Exhibit________Symmetry • 2 Forms • __________ • Sessile form (vase shape) • ___________ • Swimming form (umbrella shape)

  16. Phylum Cnidaria (Cont.) • 2 Body Layers • Epidermis (outer layer) & Gastrodermis (inner layer) • Mesoglea • Jelly-like substance in between inner and outer layer • Gastrovascular Cavity (GVC) • Empty space where digestion takes place

  17. Anatomy of a Jellyfish

  18. Phylum Cnidaria (Cont.) • Cnidocytes and Nematocytes • _________________= specialized cells used for defense • _____________= structures inside the cnidocyte that contain stinging filaments • The filaments have sharp tips that can inject _________________ into victims

  19. Phylum Cnidaria (Cont.) • 1st Nervous System • Porifera have _______ developed nervous system • Cnidarians have _________________system • No brain, but rather a loose collection of nerves called a __________________ • ___________________throughout the whole body

  20. Phylum Cnidaria (Cont.) • Where do they live? (Habitat) • Mostly ______________ • ____________ found in fresh water • How big are they? (Size) • Can be up to 6.5 feet in diameter and have ~_________________long tentacles

  21. Phylum Cnidaria (Cont.) • What do they eat? How do they eat? • Tentacles _______________________. • Nematocysts ___________ poison. • _____________ push food into mouth • How do they move? • If mobile, move by contraction and expansion of body

  22. Phylum Cnidaria (Cont.) • How do they reproduce? • Asexually • Budding & Regeneration • Sexually • Adult ____________releases ________and __________into the water where external fertilization takes place  zygote • Zygote forms the ___________________(hollow ball of cells) and then forms a ___________(ciliated larva) • ______________attaches to the ocean floor and develops mouth and tentacles • Stacks of _______________form and then detach to form individual jellyfish

  23. Life Cycle of Jellyfish Adult Female Medusa Adult Male Medusa Young Medusa Sperm Egg Blastula Planula Polyp

  24. Hydra Polyp form found in __________________ Portugese Man-of-War Found in tropical oceans Very _________________ to fish and even humans Class: Hydrozoa

  25. Class: Scyphozoa • Over ___species • Common jellyfish exist as both _______ _____________ Image Source: http://www.dnr.sc.gov/marine/pub/seascience/jellyfi.html#life

  26. Class: Anthozoa • Includes __________________________ • All marine • Medusa stage ________________________ • Corals • Are polyps that live in _______________________ • Use nutrients from algae for energy • ________________________________ • Largest coral colony on earth • _______________________ • Are polyps that use poisonous tentacles to feed on small fish

  27. Coral Reef Coral Polyps

  28. Sea Anemone Image Source: http://www.pbs.org/kcet/shapeoflife/animals/cnidaria8.html

  29. Cnetophora (Comb Jellies) • Cnetophora are technically a _____________________from Cnidaria, but they are closely related. • For our purposes, we’ll group comb jellies with __________ • Cnetophora • Found in ______________ • ______________________