Imperialism. "The sun never sets on the British Empire". Imperialism. Definition: The policy of a stronger nation of taking economic, political, and social control of weaker nations. Reasons for Expansion.
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Imperialism Definition: The policy of a stronger nation of taking economic, political, and social control of weaker nations.
Reasons for Expansion • Economic Interests: Economic leaders argued that expansion would increase U.S. financial prosperity. • Military Interests: Foreign policy experts urged U.S. leaders to establish a military presence overseas. • Competition: to keep the British and French out of the Americas. • Cultural Beliefs: Many Americans believed that their government, religion, and even race, were superior to other societies.
“The White Man’s Burden” Take up the White Man’s Burden--- Send forth the best ye breed--- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captive’s need; Your new caught sullen people, Half devil and half child. Take up the White Man’s burden--- In patience to abide, To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride; Rudyard Kipling
Social Darwinism • This term is used to describe how Darwin’s theories of natural selection can be applied to human social situations. 1. It is often used to justify social inequality. 2. It has been used to justify racism. 3. It was used to justify imperialism.
Examples of American Imperialism • Hawaii • Alaska • Cuba • Puerto Rico • China • Japan • Panama Canal
Hawaii • Hawaii gave the U.S. use of Pearl Harbor as a naval base. • Useful for trade in a new market. • Stopping point for merchants heading toward Asia.
Alaska • Seward was a strong backer of expansion. • He was Secretary of State under Lincoln and Johnson. • In 1867 he arranged the purchase of Alaska from Russia. • At the time the 7.2 million dollar deal was highly criticized.
“Seward’s Folly” “Seward’s Icebox” • Seward’s purchase ended up being the bargain of the century.
The Splendid Little War Spanish American War 1898
Events Leading to War The Spanish American War of 1898 began after Americans became angry over the Spanish policies in Cuba. The Spanish became increasingly more brutal against the Cuban people. Cuban rebels began to attack Spanish soldiers and bring the battleground onto American sugar plantations.
Two Events: • Insulting letter from Spain. • The sinking of the Maine. Crew aboard the U.S.S. Maine.
Dupuy de Lôme Letter This letter, written by the Spanish Ambassador to the United States, Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, criticized American President William McKinley by calling him weak and concerned only with obtaining the favor of the public. Publication of the letter helped generate public support for a war between America and Spain. . Cuban revolutionaries intercepted the letter from the mail and released it to the Hearst press. • Americans were outraged. Spain apologized and the minister was fired.
“Remember the Maine” • The explosion was blamed on Spain. Americans used the incident as a rally cry to go to war.
War Rally Cries • Mexican War • Spanish American War • World War I • World War II • War on Terror
SPANISH AMERICAN WAR Through the use of yellow journalism the war began.
Yellow Journalism • Yellow Journalism is a form of writing that developed during the late 1800’s as a result of the competition between Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst. • This type of journalism uses exaggeration of the truth in order to sell more papers.
“Yellow Journalism” “You furnish the pictures, I’ll furnish the war William Randolph Hearst
Declaration of War • With a little help from the press, the American people began to clamor for war. • On April 25, 1898 the United States declared war on Spain.
Teller Amendment At the same time as McKinley’s request for war, Congress passed the Teller Amendment. The amendment stated that once the war was over the United States would leave control of Cuba to its people.
The Rough Riders • Americans were unhappy with the draft during the Civil War so as a consequence the Spanish American War was fought entirely by a volunteer army.
Rough Riders The Rough Riders consisted of tough men who were former football players, boxers, cowboys, and ranchers.
Roosevelt • Teddy Roosevelt brought his own photographer to document the trip. • He will later use the photos when he runs as Vice President.
The Philippines • The first battle of the Spanish American War took place in the Philippines. • Dewey engaged the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay. • Steel- and iron-hulled U.S. ships helped to defeat the Spaniards. • Filipino rebels, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, had already been fighting Spain. • Surrounded by Dewey (at sea) and Aguinaldo (on land), Spanish forces surrendered.
The surprise naval attack sunk the crumbling Spanish Navy. • Traditionally the Spanish and English had the most powerful navies in the world.
Unprepared for War • U.S. War Department was unprepared for war in Cuba. • The America army was not prepared for a war in Cuba. They were not properly trained and were issued woolen uniforms. • The climate in Cuba is very hot and humid. • Soldiers were also not prepared for the consequences from the mosquitoes.
Yellow Fever • Yellow fever was first reported in Cuba in 1649, when one-third of Havana residents died from the disease. • From 1856 to 1879, the disease struck the city nearly every month. • Foreign occupiers were particularly susceptible: an estimated 16,000 Spanish troops died from yellow fever between 1895 and 1898.
Despite knowing that yellow fever was most likely to strike in the summer rainy season, the U.S. invaded Cuba on June 22nd. • Fewer than 400 American soldiers were killed in combat during the war. But more than 2,000 contracted yellow fever during the campaign.
Battle of San Juan Hill • In Santiago, Teddy Roosevelt’s Rough Riders, captured San Juan Hill and fortified positions around the city. • The battle was fought with the 10th NegroCavalry. The Spanish were outnumbered 10 to 1.
After the War • The U.S. and Spain agreed to stop fighting on August 12th, 1898. • As a result of the Spanish American war the United States acquired control of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. • The acquisition of the Philippines brought up the heaviest debate over imperialism.
Annexing the Philippines For Annexation • Believed the United States had a duty to spread its values overseas. • Philippines had economic and strategic value that should not fall into the hands of other countries. Controversy raged in the United States over whether to annex the Philippines. • Against Annexation • Believed annexation would violate the ideal of self-government • Did not want oppression to occur; The United States should not export racism and violence • Some Americans believed annexation would increase immigration to the United States.
The Philippines Arguments in favor of annexation: • New Markets, investments, naval bases. • Take over and “Christianize” the islands. • Other countries would take it if we didn’t.
Anti-Imperialist League • This league formed to help re-affirm that people of all races, religions, and ethnic backgrounds had the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. • Many anti-imperialists believed that the U.S. was as bad as the Spanish were against the Cubans.
Anti-Imperialism • There were many people who spoke out against imperialism including: -Mark Twain -Andrew Carnegie -Jane Addams -Samuel Gompers
Platt Amendment • This agreement gave the U.S. the right to intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary.
WILLIAM MCKINLEY McKinley was well like by the American people. He helped the U.S. to gain victory over Spain in the Spanish American War. Theodore Roosevelt was selected as his vice president by the Republicans to keep him in a back seat position in the government.
President McKinley’s House in Canton • After winning the nomination for President, McKinley went home and conducted his famous "front porch campaign."
McKinley Goes to New York • McKinley arriving at the Pan-American Exhibition in Buffalo, New York on September 4, 1901. • He was to give a speech on Sept. 6th.
The Assassination • After the president’s speech he stood in the entrance of a building to greet people and shake their hands. • People filed in two by two and narrowed down single file when they reached the president. • A man in a plain gray suit approached the president. Noticing that the man had his right hand wrapped McKinley reached out to shake his left.
Assassination • The man sprang forward and fired two shots • A group of men began to beat the gunman severely. • McKinley called out “Don’t hurt him”.
Leon Czolgosz • As McKinley laid dying he told his security people to be careful how the told his wife. • The gunman was a proclaimed “anarchist”. • Since 1894, anarchists had taken responsibility for killing the leaders of France, Italy, and Austria. Five months before McKinley’s assassination Britain’s Prince of Wales narrowly escaped an anarchist’s bullet.
THEODORE ROOSEVELT The youngest American to become President of the United States.