Objectives • To explain the effects of geography on cultural development in China • To describe the growth and structure of the Shang Dynasty • To describe Shang family structure, religion, and technology • To summarize the rise and fall of the Zhou Dynasty
Map • Label the following: • Oceans • Pacific • Indian • Mountains • Himalayas • Rivers • Indus • Ganges • Huang He (Yellow) • Yangtze • Questions: • What geographic features might have prevented trade between China and the Indus Valley? • What area of China was weak to invasions? What physical features were located there?
Geography of China • Long distances and physical barriers separated it from Egypt, the Middle East, and India • This isolation led to the belief that China was the center of the earth and sole source of civilization
Regions: China’s Heartland: Huang He (yellow) river, and the Yangzi river supported the largest populations
Xinjiang, Mongolia, and Manchuria • Xinjiang and Mongolia are harsh and rugged • Mainly nomads and subsistence farmers • At times invaders from these regions conquered China • Genghis Khan and the Mongols
River of Sorrows • Chinese history starts in Huang He valley • Called “yellow” river because of the loess that turns the river yellow • Called “China’s Sorrow” because of the constant flooding
First Dynasties • Peking Man- Homo erectus skeleton discovered near Beijing on the Yellow River, settled 500,000 yrs ago • Myth: 2000 B.C.E. first civilization arose • Mythic ancestor of Chinese: P’an Ku • A leader named Yu tamed Huang He river • No written records • Fact • organized state rose around 2000 B.C.E. with irrigation of Hwang He river • By 1000 B.C.E. • Used pottery, Rode horses • Used Bronze, Introduced Iron • Writing developed • Scientific advances • Interest in music
Shang Dynasty • 1532 B.C. E. Shang controlled Huang He valley • Invaders? • Dominated until 1027 B.C.E. • Decline due to Invasion • Characteristics: • First to leave written Records • constructed impressive tombs and palaces
Writing • Oracle bones: animal bones or turtle shells on which priests wrote questions to ancestors or gods’ • by interpreting the cracks in the bone, they answers were provided
Written Chinese • 4,000 years ago • Each character represented a word or and idea • Over 10,000 characters • Calligraphy was an art form • Writing was a unifying force since not everyone spoke the same language.
Zhou Dynasty • 1027 B.C. overthrew the Shang • Lasted until 256 B.C. • To justify overthrowing the Shang, the Zhou promoted the idea of Mandate of Heaven, or divine right to rule • Explains the dynastic cycle • Floods and famine were a sign that the dynasty was out of favor with the gods.
Feudal States • Zhou rewarded supporters with land • Feudalism: system of government in which local lords governed their own land but owed military service to ruler • Eventually feudalism became more powerful than the dynasty
Economic Growth • Iron-making leads to more food production • New crops and irrigation systems • Commerce expanded, use of money • New roads and canals • Led to increase in population
Warring States Period • 771 B.C.E. – nomads sacked the Zhou capital of Hao and murdered the monarch • A few family members escaped and ruled from new capital for 500 years • Powerless, couldn’t control noble families • Warlords claimed to be “kings” of territory • Led to “warring states” period • Warring States • Warfare changed, no longer honorable • Peasants main force on battlefield • New weapons such as a crossbow • Central values changed • No longer order, harmony, and respect for authority…. Now chaos, arrogance and defiance