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Western Civilizations Unit 4 CH 7 4. Agricultural and Economic Revolution Culture of the high middle ages C. 1000-1300 AD. Changes in Agriculture. Population explosion (38-74 mil. in 300 years) The settlement of the 9 th century invaders led to peace and stability Climate improved

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western civilizations unit 4 ch 7 4

Western CivilizationsUnit 4CH 7 4

Agricultural and Economic Revolution

Culture of the high middle ages

C. 1000-1300 AD

changes in agriculture
Changes in Agriculture
  • Population explosion (38-74 mil. in 300 years)
    • The settlement of the 9th century invaders led to peace and stability
    • Climate improved
    • More land farmed = more food
    • Changes in technology (next slide)
inventions and the agricultural revolution after 1000
Inventions and the Agricultural Revolution (after 1000)
  • Water and wind mills
  • Heavier plows made of iron (Carruca)
  • Collar harness (horses instead of oxen)
  • The horseshoe
  • The three field system
  • The result
    • Better crops, more food, better diet
    • Between 1000 and 1300 the population of Western Europe doubled
the growth of trade
The Growth of Trade
  • Population explosion = an increase in demand
    • The first city states (Venice, Genoa, Pisa) established trade with the East (Asia-Byz-Eur)
      • Learning of Arabs and Greeks now appears in the West
  • New business practices made trade easier “The Commercial Revolution”
    • Coins (money economy)
    • Banking (letters of credit)
    • Partnerships (joint stock Co’s)
the revival of towns
The Revival of Towns
  • Old Roman cities come back to life
    • Craftsmen now produce goods for trade and create the new middle class or Bourgeoisie
    • Guilds: Apprentice, Journeyman, Master
      • Organizations of crafts workers (unions)
    • Government: right to rule themselves from Charters obtained from the Lord or King
    • Town Life (dirty, smelly, dangerous)
  • Labor lords eventually become land lords
    • Serfs become rent paying peasants (tenant farmers)
romanesque v gothic architecture
Romanesque v. Gothic Architecture
  • Romanesque Architecture: 11th and 12th Centuries
    • Fortress like appearance, rounded arch, heavy ceilings to support massive thick walls, small windows very little light or color
  • Gothic Architecture (Began in the late 1100’s)
    • Between 1180 and 1270 80 Gothic Cathedrals were built in France
    • Pointed arches (flying buttresses) high ceilings, thin walls, stained glass windows, light, color
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