Whiplash Associated Disorders. J. Scott Bainbridge, MD Denver Back Pain Specialists www.denverbackpainspecialists.com. Definition.
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J. Scott Bainbridge, MD
Denver Back Pain Specialists
Z-joint Referral Patterns
Thoracic Z-joint Referral Patterns
“Annular fibers restrict axial rotation more than the facet joints.” (Krismer 1996)
Spine 25:1382-1389, 2000
Pain Referral Patterns
>50% with >3 positive discs
(Cholewicki & McGill 1996, Crisco & Panjabi 1991,
Hoffer & Andreasson 1981)
(Loudow et al 1997, Revel et al 1991 1994, Heikkla & Astrom 1996)
(Silverman et al 1991, White & Sahrmann 1994, Jull 1998)